Aim: We aimed to examine the distribution and activation of peripheral T cells in TTV positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 17) hemodialyzed patients. The control group (n = 20) consisted of healthy blood donors. Method: TTV-DNA was detected by seminested PCR. CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56, CD3/HLA-DR, CD3/CD69 and the Th1/Th2 ratio of T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Circulating IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-β levels were measured by ELISA in the sera. Results: There was no difference between the CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19 values of HD subjects. In addition, the expression of both activation markers, HLA-DR and CD69, was significantly elevated in the TTV-positive and -negative HD groups compared to the controls, but not showing any difference from each other. The measurements of intracellular cytokines showed the enhanced occurrence of INF-γ + CD4 T cells, and decreased appearance of IL-4 + CD4 lymphocytes in the HD groups without any significant difference between the TTV virus positive and negative patients. In addition, HD also elevated the expression of IL-10 in CD4 and CD8 (Th2) cells. There were only two significant changes in the levels of circulating cytokines: (a) IL-2 increased; (b) IL-13 decreased in both groups of HD patients compared to the controls, independently of TTV positvity or negativity. Conclusions: We assume that transfusion-transmitted virus does not cause any specific change in the distribution and activation of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of hemodialyzed patients. Hemodialysis itself, however, results in a significant activation of peripheral T cells with the domination of increased production of Th1 type cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, in contrast to the decreased synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Furthermore, the increased expression of IL-10 in the CD4 and CD8 cells of HD patients can be the sign of a contraregulatory Th2 activation as an answer on the Th1 effect.