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      The impact of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention, on women's experiences of intimate partner violence: secondary findings from a cluster randomised trial in Kampala, Uganda

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          Abstract

          Background

          Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights concern, though there is limited evidence on how to prevent it. This secondary analysis of data from the SASA! Study assesses the potential of a community mobilisation IPV prevention intervention to reduce overall prevalence of IPV, new onset of abuse (primary prevention) and continuation of prior abuse (secondary prevention).

          Methods

          A pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 8 communities (4 intervention, 4 control) in Kampala, Uganda (2007–2012). Cross-sectional surveys of community members, 18–49 years old, were undertaken at baseline (n=1583) and 4 years postintervention implementation (n=2532). Outcomes relate to women's past year experiences of physical and sexual IPV, emotional aggression, controlling behaviours and fear of partner. An adjusted cluster-level intention-to-treat analysis compared outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up.

          Results

          At follow-up, all types of IPV (including severe forms of each) were lower in intervention communities compared with control communities. SASA! was associated with lower onset of abuse and lower continuation of prior abuse. Statistically significant effects were observed for continued physical IPV (adjusted risk ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.96); continued sexual IPV (0.68, 0.53 to 0.87); continued emotional aggression (0.68, 0.52 to 0.89); continued fear of partner (0.67, 0.51 to 0.89); and new onset of controlling behaviours (0.38, 0.23 to 0.62).

          Conclusions

          Community mobilisation is an effective means for both primary and secondary prevention of IPV. Further support should be given to the replication and scale up of SASA! and other similar interventions.

          Trial registration number

          NCT00790959

          Related collections

          Most cited references 25

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          The world report on violence and health.

          In 1996, the World Health Assembly declared violence a major public health issue. To follow up on this resolution, on Oct 3 this year, WHO released the first World Report on Violence and Health. The report analyses different types of violence including child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, elder abuse, self-directed violence, and collective violence. For all these types of violence, the report explores the magnitude of the health and social effects, the risk and protective factors, and the types of prevention efforts that have been initiated. The launch of the report will be followed by a 1-year Global Campaign on Violence Prevention, focusing on implementation of the recommendations. This article summarises some of the main points of the world report.
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            In search of how people change. Applications to addictive behaviors.

            How people intentionally change addictive behaviors with and without treatment is not well understood by behavioral scientists. This article summarizes research on self-initiated and professionally facilitated change of addictive behaviors using the key trans-theoretical constructs of stages and processes of change. Modification of addictive behaviors involves progression through five stages--pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance--and individuals typically recycle through these stages several times before termination of the addiction. Multiple studies provide strong support for these stages as well as for a finite and common set of change processes used to progress through the stages. Research to date supports a trans-theoretical model of change that systematically integrates the stages with processes of change from diverse theories of psychotherapy.
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              Simple sample size calculation for cluster-randomized trials.

               R Hayes,  S. Bennett (1999)
              Cluster-randomized trials, in which health interventions are allocated randomly to intact clusters or communities rather than to individual subjects, are increasingly being used to evaluate disease control strategies both in industrialized and in developing countries. Sample size computations for such trials need to take into account between-cluster variation, but field epidemiologists find it difficult to obtain simple guidance on such procedures. In this paper, we provide simple formulae for sample size determination for both unmatched and pair-matched trials. Outcomes considered include rates per person-year, proportions and means. For simplicity, formulae are expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation (SD/mean) of cluster rates, proportions or means. Guidance is also given on the estimation of this value, with or without the use of prior data on between-cluster variation. The methods are illustrated using two case studies: an unmatched trial of the impact of impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kenya, and a pair-matched trial of improved sexually-transmitted disease (STD) treatment services for HIV prevention in Tanzania.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Epidemiol Community Health
                J Epidemiol Community Health
                jech
                jech
                Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                0143-005X
                1470-2738
                August 2016
                12 February 2016
                : 70
                : 8
                : 818-825
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gender Violence and Health Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London, UK
                [2 ]Raising Voices , Kampala, Uganda
                [3 ]Centre for Domestic Violence Prevention , Kampala, Uganda
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Tanya Abramsky, Gender Violence and Health Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London WC1H 9SH, UK; Tanya.abramsky@ 123456lshtm.ac.uk
                Article
                jech-2015-206665
                10.1136/jech-2015-206665
                4975800
                26873948
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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                Public health

                violence, prevention, randomised trials, social epidemiology, gender

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