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      Plant-derived anticancer agents: A green anticancer approach

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          How Taxol/paclitaxel kills cancer cells

          Taxol (generic name paclitaxel) is a microtubule-stabilizing drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer, as well as Kaposi's sarcoma. It is used off-label to treat gastroesophageal, endometrial, cervical, prostate, and head and neck cancers, in addition to sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Paclitaxel has long been recognized to induce mitotic arrest, which leads to cell death in a subset of the arrested population. However, recent evidence demonstrates that intratumoral concentrations of paclitaxel are too low to cause mitotic arrest and result in multipolar divisions instead. It is hoped that this insight can now be used to develop a biomarker to identify the ∼50% of patients that will benefit from paclitaxel therapy. Here I discuss the history of paclitaxel and our recently evolved understanding of its mechanism of action.
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            Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

            Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.
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              Clinical pharmacology of resveratrol and its metabolites in colorectal cancer patients.

              Resveratrol is a phytochemical with chemopreventive activity in preclinical rodent models of colorectal carcinogenesis. Antiproliferation is one of the many chemopreventive modes of action it has been shown to engage in. Concentrations of resveratrol, which can be achieved in human tissues after p.o. administration, have not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites in the colorectal tissue of humans who ingested resveratrol. Twenty patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer consumed eight daily doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g before surgical resection. Resveratrol was found to be well tolerated. Normal and malignant biopsy tissue samples were obtained before dosing. Parent compound plus its metabolites resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, resveratrol-4'-O-sulfate, resveratrol sulfate glucuronide, and resveratrol disulfate were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV or mass spectrometric detection in colorectal resection tissue. Quantitation was achieved by HPLC/UV. Cell proliferation, as reflected by Ki-67 staining, was compared in preintervention and postintervention tissue samples. Resveratrol and resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide were recovered from tissues at maximal mean concentrations of 674 and 86.0 nmol/g, respectively. Levels of resveratrol and its metabolites were consistently higher in tissues originating in the right side of the colon compared with the left. Consumption of resveratrol reduced tumor cell proliferation by 5% (P = 0.05). The results suggest that daily p.o. doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g produce levels in the human gastrointestinal tract of an order of magnitude sufficient to elicit anticarcinogenic effects. Resveratrol merits further clinical evaluation as a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent. © 2010 AACR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
                Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
                Elsevier BV
                22211691
                December 2017
                December 2017
                : 7
                : 12
                : 1129-1150
                Article
                10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.016
                89b571d9-db4d-46fc-9680-180c7aa5dde5
                © 2017

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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