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      A network pharmacology approach to explore active compounds and pharmacological mechanisms of epimedium for treatment of premature ovarian insufficiency

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          Abstract

          Background and purpose

          Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) refers to a hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenism and the condition of pre-onset ovarian function failure. Epimedium is a common traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to relieve POI in China. To systematically explore the pharmacological mechanism of epimedium on POI therapy, a network pharmacology approach was conducted at the molecular level.

          Methods

          In this study, we adopt the network pharmacology method, which mainly includes active ingredients prescreening, target prediction, gene enrichment analysis and network analysis.

          Results

          The network analysis revealed that 6 targets (ESR1, AR, ESR2, KDR, CYP19A1 and ESRRG) might be the therapeutic targets of epimedium on POI. In addition, gene-enrichment analysis suggested that epimedium appeared to play a role in POI by modulating 6 molecular functions, 5 cellular components, 15 biological processes and striking 52 potential targets involved in 13 signaling pathways.

          Conclusion

          This study predicted the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of epimedium against POI from a holistic perspective, as well as provided a powerful tool for exploring pharmacological mechanisms and rational clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine.

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          Most cited references 36

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          McKusick's Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®)

          McKusick's Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim), a knowledgebase of human genes and phenotypes, was originally published as a book, Mendelian Inheritance in Man, in 1966. The content of OMIM is derived exclusively from the published biomedical literature and is updated daily. It currently contains 18 961 full-text entries describing phenotypes and genes. To date, 2239 genes have mutations causing disease, and 3770 diseases have a molecular basis. Approximately 70 new entries are added and 700 entries are updated per month. OMIM® is expanding content and organization in response to shifting biological paradigms and advancing biotechnology.
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            Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI

            The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP.
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              Network pharmacology.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                22 August 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 2997-3007
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Reproductive Medicine Centre, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University , Yantai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University , Yantai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Central Laboratory, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University , Yantai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Huishan ZhaoReproductive Medicine Centre, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University , Yantai, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 1 861 597 9792 Email zhaohuishan1011@163.com
                Benjiao GongCentral Laboratory, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University , Yantai, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 1 835 456 5136 Email pumeigong@163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                207823
                10.2147/DDDT.S207823
                6710481
                © 2019 Zhao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 47, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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