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      Innate immunity pathways regulate the nephropathy gene Apolipoprotein L1


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          Apolipoprotein L1 ( APOL1) risk variants greatly elevate the risk of kidney disease in African Americans. Here we report a cohort of patients who developed collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis while receiving therapeutic interferon, all of whom carried the APOL1 high-risk genotype. This finding raised the possibility that interferons and the molecular pattern recognition receptors that stimulate interferon production may contribute to APOL1-associated kidney disease. In cell culture, interferons and toll-like receptor agonists increased APOL1 expression by up to 200-fold, in some cases with the appearance of transcripts not detected under basal conditions. PolyI:C, a double-stranded RNA TLR3 agonist, increased APOL1 expression by upregulating interferons directly or through an interferon-independent, IRF-3 dependent pathway. Using pharmacological inhibitors, shRNA knockdown, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that the interferon-independent TLR3 pathway relied on signaling through TBK1, NF-kB, and Jak kinases, and on binding of IRF1, IRF2, and STAT2 at the APOL1 transcription start site. We also demonstrate that overexpression of the APOL1 risk variants is more injurious to cells than overexpression of the wild-type APOL1 protein. Our study illustrates that anti-viral pathways may be an important inducer of kidney disease in individuals with the APOL1 high-risk genotype and identifies potential targets for prevention or treatment.

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          Most cited references27

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          Peroxisomes are signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity.

          Peroxisomes have long been established to play a central role in regulating various metabolic activities in mammalian cells. These organelles act in concert with mitochondria to control the metabolism of lipids and reactive oxygen species. However, while mitochondria have emerged as an important site of antiviral signal transduction, a role for peroxisomes in immune defense is unknown. Here, we report that the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) adaptor protein MAVS is located on peroxisomes and mitochondria. We find that peroxisomal and mitochondrial MAVS act sequentially to create an antiviral cellular state. Upon viral infection, peroxisomal MAVS induces the rapid interferon-independent expression of defense factors that provide short-term protection, whereas mitochondrial MAVS activates an interferon-dependent signaling pathway with delayed kinetics, which amplifies and stabilizes the antiviral response. The interferon regulatory factor IRF1 plays a crucial role in regulating MAVS-dependent signaling from peroxisomes. These results establish that peroxisomes are an important site of antiviral signal transduction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            An inhibitor of the protein kinases TBK1/IKKε improves obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions

            Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation provides a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The noncanonical IκB kinases IKKε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) are induced in liver and fat after high fat diet by NF-κB activation, and in turn initiate a program of counter-inflammation that preserves energy storage. Here, we report the discovery of a small molecule inhibitor of these kinases called amlexanox. Treatment of obese mice with amlexanox elevates energy expenditure through increased thermogenesis, producing weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and decreased steatosis in obese mice. Because of its record of safety in patients, amlexanox may be an interesting candidate for clinical evaluation in the treatment of obesity and related disorders.
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              Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanosome lytic factor of human serum.

              Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We show that SRA is a lysosomal protein, and that the amino-terminal alpha-helix of SRA is responsible for resistance to NHS. This domain interacts strongly with a carboxy-terminal alpha-helix of the human-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I). Depleting NHS of apoL-I, by incubation with SRA or anti-apoL-I, led to the complete loss of trypanolytic activity. Addition of native or recombinant apoL-I either to apoL-I-depleted NHS or to fetal calf serum induced lysis of NHS-sensitive, but not NHS-resistant, trypanosomes. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that apoL-I is taken up through the endocytic pathway into the lysosome. We propose that apoL-I is the trypanosome lytic factor of NHS, and that SRA confers resistance to lysis by interaction with apoL-I in the lysosome.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Int
                Kidney Int.
                Kidney international
                4 July 2014
                06 August 2014
                February 2015
                01 August 2015
                : 87
                : 2
                : 332-342
                [1 ]Renal Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. USA
                [2 ]Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard, Medical School, Boston, MA. USA
                [3 ]Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA. USA
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, Columbia University, College of, Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. USA
                [5 ]National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: David Friedman, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA. dfriedma@ 123456bidmc.harvard.edu . (617) 667-0253



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