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      DNA-Driven Assembly: From Polyhedral Nanoparticles to Proteins

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

      Annual Review of Materials Research

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Directed crystallization of a large variety of nanoparticles, including proteins, via DNA hybridization kinetics has led to unique materials with a broad range of crystal symmetries. The nanoparticles are functionalized with DNA chains that link neighboring functionalized units. The shape of the nanoparticle, the DNA length, the sequence of the hybridizing DNA linker, and the grafting density determine the crystal symmetries and lattice spacing. By carefully selecting these parameters, one can, in principle, achieve all the symmetries found for both atomic and colloidal crystals of asymmetric shapes as well as new symmetries and can drive transitions between them. A scale-accurate coarse-grained model with explicit DNA chains provides the design parameters, including the degree of hybridization, to achieve specific crystal structures. The model also provides surface energy values to determine the shape of defect-free single crystals with macroscopic anisotropic properties, which has potential for the fabrication of materials with specific optical and mechanical properties.

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          A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials.

          Colloidal particles of metals and semiconductors have potentially useful optical, optoelectronic and material properties that derive from their small (nanoscopic) size. These properties might lead to applications including chemical sensors, spectroscopic enhancers, quantum dot and nanostructure fabrication, and microimaging methods. A great deal of control can now be exercised over the chemical composition, size and polydispersity of colloidal particles, and many methods have been developed for assembling them into useful aggregates and materials. Here we describe a method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates. The method involves attaching to the surfaces of two batches of 13-nm gold particles non-complementary DNA oligonucleotides capped with thiol groups, which bind to gold. When we add to the solution an oligonucleotide duplex with 'sticky ends' that are complementary to the two grafted sequences, the nanoparticles self-assemble into aggregates. This assembly process can be reversed by thermal denaturation. This strategy should now make it possible to tailor the optical, electronic and structural properties of the colloidal aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition.
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            Anisotropy of building blocks and their assembly into complex structures.

            A revolution in novel nanoparticles and colloidal building blocks has been enabled by recent breakthroughs in particle synthesis. These new particles are poised to become the 'atoms' and 'molecules' of tomorrow's materials if they can be successfully assembled into useful structures. Here, we discuss the recent progress made in the synthesis of nanocrystals and colloidal particles and draw analogies between these new particulate building blocks and better-studied molecules and supramolecular objects. We argue for a conceptual framework for these new building blocks based on anisotropy attributes and discuss the prognosis for future progress in exploiting anisotropy for materials design and assembly.
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              Organization of 'nanocrystal molecules' using DNA.

              Patterning matter on the nanometre scale is an important objective of current materials chemistry and physics. It is driven by both the need to further miniaturize electronic components and the fact that at the nanometre scale, materials properties are strongly size-dependent and thus can be tuned sensitively. In nanoscale crystals, quantum size effects and the large number of surface atoms influence the, chemical, electronic, magnetic and optical behaviour. 'Top-down' (for example, lithographic) methods for nanoscale manipulation reach only to the upper end of the nanometre regime; but whereas 'bottom-up' wet chemical techniques allow for the preparation of mono-disperse, defect-free crystallites just 1-10 nm in size, ways to control the structure of nanocrystal assemblies are scarce. Here we describe a strategy for the synthesis of 'nanocrystal molecules', in which discrete numbers of gold nanocrystals are organized into spatially defined structures based on Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. We attach single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides of defined length and sequence to individual nanocrystals, and these assemble into dimers and trimers on addition of a complementary single-stranded DNA template. We anticipate that this approach should allow the construction of more complex two- and three-dimensional assemblies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Materials Research
                Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
                Annual Reviews
                1531-7331
                1545-4118
                July 03 2017
                July 03 2017
                : 47
                : 1
                : 33-49
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208;
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
                [3 ]Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
                [4 ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-matsci-070616-124201
                © 2017

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