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      Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade Ameliorates Mesangioproliferative Glomerulonephritis in Rats through Suppression of CTGF and PAI-1, Independently of the Coagulation System

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          Abstract

          Background: Previously we observed that the coagulation system promotes matrix protein accumulation through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in rat mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to suppress matrix accumulation in experimental MsPGN. In the present study, we investigated whether ARB suppresses MsPGN through inhibition of these profibrotic cytokines, and in relation to coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Methods: MsPGN was induced in Wistar rats by intravenous injection of anti-Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody, OX-7. As an ARB, olmesartan was orally administered in rat feed from the day of OX-7 injection (day 0) to day 8, when rats were sacrificed and kidney specimens were collected. The degrees of cellular proliferation, matrix production, coagulation factors, and inhibitory factor of fibrinolysis were evaluated. Results: Although blood pressure did not change in the normal, disease control, or treatment groups, the amount of urinary protein was significantly decreased in the ARB-treated groups, compared with the disease control group (p < 0.05). α-Smooth muscle actin expression was suppressed significantly in the treatment groups (p < 0.001). Blue-staining areas of trichrome, the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)- or ED-1-positive cells, fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in glomeruli significantly decreased in the treatment groups (p < 0.05, respectively); however, fibrin-related antigen and factor V depositions were not suppressed in the treatment groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that the ARB drug would ameliorate MsPGN in vivo, at least partly through CTGF and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 suppression, and independently of the local coagulation system in glomeruli.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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            Angiotensin II stimulates extracellular matrix protein synthesis through induction of transforming growth factor-beta expression in rat glomerular mesangial cells.

            Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of progressive glomerulosclerosis, but the precise mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In an experimental model, we have shown previously that TGF-beta plays a key role in glomerulosclerosis by stimulating extracellular matrix protein synthesis, increasing matrix protein receptors, and altering protease/protease-inhibitor balance, thereby inhibiting matrix degradation. We hypothesized that Ang II contributes to glomerulosclerosis through induction of TGF-beta. Ang II treatment of rat mesangial cells in culture increased TGF-beta and matrix components biglycan, fibronectin, and collagen type I at both the mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Saralasin, a competitive inhibitor of Ang II, prevented the stimulation. Ang II also promoted conversion of latent TGF-beta to the biologically active form. Coincubation of mesangial cells with Ang II and neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta blocked the Ang II-induced increases in matrix protein expression. Continuous in vivo administration of Ang II to normal rats for 7 d resulted in 70% increases in glomerular mRNA for both TGF-beta and collagen type I. These results indicate that Ang II induces mesangial cell synthesis of matrix proteins and show that these effects are mediated by Ang II induction of TGF-beta expression. This mechanism may well contribute to glomerulosclerosis in vivo.
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              The progression of renal disease.

              The diversity of its causes, the unpredictability of its clinical course, and our expanding knowledge of the conditions that may exacerbate or retard its progression suggest that glomerular sclerosis cannot be attributed to a single aberration in glomerular physiology. Nonetheless, the welter of clinical and experimental observations is beginning to yield a pattern. Agents or conditions injurious to glomerular epithelium tend to cause glomerular sclerosis. Agents or conditions that induce short-term or long-term activation of mesangial cells may lead to glomerular sclerosis. Indeed, one contribution of the healthy epithelium may be to serve as a tonic inhibitor of the intraglomerular processes arising from mesangial-cell activation. Long-term activation of the mesangium is associated with the proliferation and infiltration of cells and with the expansion of the mesangial matrix--the antecedents of sclerosis. We anticipate that different diseases associated with glomerular sclerosis will be found to depend to varying extents on these two potential mechanisms of sclerosis. Beyond a certain threshold of glomerular injury, glomerular diseases share an additional factor: the capacity of both intrinsic cells and infiltrating cells to alter the microenvironment of the glomerulus so that sclerosis progresses inexorably long after the disappearance of the initiating insult. Several potential risk factors may contribute to the progression of chronic renal disease. These factors include systemic hypertension, proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, high protein intake, and probably conditions that lead to glomerular hypertrophy. Interventions designed to minimize the potential contribution of these factors to the progression of renal insufficiency may halt or slow the loss of function of the kidney. Clinical trials designed to examine the effects of these factors on the progressive course of renal insufficiency will help to establish their role and relative importance in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2007
                February 2007
                29 December 2006
                : 105
                : 3
                : e65-e74
                Affiliations
                aClinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Shizuoka School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shizuoka, and bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
                Article
                98321 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007;105:e65–e74
                10.1159/000098321
                17199095
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98321
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