33
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Strong and Long-Lasting Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Conjugate of Naturally Occurring Oleanolic Acid and Aspirin

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The conjugate 8 was obtained as a result of condensation of 3-hydroxyiminooleanolic acid morfolide (7) and aspirin in dioxane. Analgesic effect of OAO-ASA (8) for the range of doses 0.3–300.0 mg/kg ( p.o.) was performed in mice using a hot-plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats for the same range of doses. The conjugate OAO-ASA (8) did not significantly change locomotor activity of mice, therefore sedative properties of the compound should be excluded. The compound 8 proved a simple, proportional, dose-dependent analgesic action and expressed strong anti-inflammatory activity showing a reversed U-shaped, dose-dependent relation with its maximum at 30.0 mg/kg. After its combined administration with morphine (MF, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c.) the lowering of antinociceptive activity was found; however, the interaction with naloxone (NL, 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) did not affect the antinociceptive effect of OAO-ASA (8), therefore its opioid mechanism of action should be rather excluded. After combined administration with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300.0 mg/kg, p.o.) in hot-plate test, the examined compound 8 enhanced the antinociceptive activity in significant way. It also shows that rather the whole molecule is responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compound 8, however, it cannot be excluded that the summarizing effect is produced by ASA released from the compound 8 and the rest of triterpene derivative. The occurrence of tolerance for triterpenic derivative 8 was not observed, since the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects after chronic administration of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8) was on the same level as after its single treatment. It seemed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of OAO-ASA (8) is not simple, even its chronic administration lowered both blood concentration of IL-6 and mRNA IL-6 expression. However, the effects of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8) on TNF-α level and mRNA expression were opposite. Moreover, compound 8 did not change unequivocally mRNA TLR1, and TLR3 expression. Concluding, the obtained results regarding the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of new conjugate of oleanolic acid oxime and acetylsalicylic acid (OAO-ASA 8) are very interesting, but for explanation of its mechanism of action, more detailed studies are necessary.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 55

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Quantitative expression of toll-like receptor 1-10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides.

          The Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 is critical for the recognition of immunostimulatory CpG motifs but may cooperate with other TLRs. We analyzed TLR1-10 mRNA expression by using quantitative real-time PCR in highly purified subsets of human PBMC and determined the sensitivity of these subsets to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). TLR1 and TLR6 were expressed in all cell types examined. TLR10 was highly expressed in B cells and weakly expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC). High expression of TLR2 was characteristic for monocytes. PDC and B cells expressed marked levels of TLR7 and TLR9 and were directly sensitive to CpG ODN. In CpG ODN-stimulated PDC and B cells, TLR9 expression rapidly decreased, as opposed to TLR7, which was up-regulated in PDC and decreased in B cells. In monocytes, NK cells, and T cells, TLR7 was absent. Despite low expression of TLR9, monocytes, NK cells, and T cells did not respond to CpG ODN in the absence of PDC but were activated in the presence of PDC. In conclusion, our studies provide evidence that PDC and B cells, but not monocytes, NK cells, or T cells, are primary targets of CpG ODN in peripheral blood. The characteristic expression pattern of TLR1-10 in cellular subsets of human PBMC is consistent with the concept that TLR9 is essential in the recognition of CpG ODN in PDC and B cells. In addition, selective regulation of TLR7 expression in PDC and B cells by CpG ODN revealed TLR7 as a candidate TLR potentially involved in modulating the recognition of CpG motifs.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the mu-opioid-receptor gene.

             P Dollé,  E Tzavara,  S Slowe (1996)
            Despite tremendous efforts in the search for safe, efficacious and non-addictive opioids for pain treatment, morphine remains the most valuable painkiller in contemporary medicine. Opioids exert their pharmacological actions through three opioid-receptor classes, mu, delta and kappa, whose genes have been cloned. Genetic approaches are now available to delineate the contribution of each receptor in opioid function in vivo. Here we disrupt the mu-opioid-receptor gene in mice by homologous recombination and find that there are no overt behavioural abnormalities or major compensatory changes within the opioid system in these animals. Investigation of the behavioural effects of morphine reveals that a lack of mu receptors abolishes the analgesic effect of morphine, as well as place-preference activity and physical dependence. We observed no behavioural responses related to delta- or kappa-receptor activation with morphine, although these receptors are present and bind opioid ligands. We conclude that the mu-opioid-receptor gene product is the molecular target of morphine in vivo and that it is a mandatory component of the opioid system for morphine action.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.

               Jie Liu (1995)
              Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver disorders. The mechanism of hepatoprotection by these two compounds may involve the inhibition of toxicant activation and the enhancement of the body defense systems. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid have also been long-recognized to have antiinflammatory and antihyperlipidemic properties in laboratory animals, and more research is warranted to develop a therapy for patients. Recently, both compounds have been noted for their antitumor-promotion effects, which are stimulating additional research in this field. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are relatively non-toxic, and have been used in cosmetics and health products. The possible mechanisms for the pharmacological effects and the prospects for these two compounds are discussed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                12 July 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland
                2Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland
                3Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacogenetics, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland
                4Department of Pharmacology and Phytochemistry, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants Plewiska, Poland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Rosario Pignatello, University of Catania, Italy

                Reviewed by: Aida Habib, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Haroon Khan, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Barbara Bednarczyk-Cwynar, bcwynar@ 123456ump.edu.pl

                This article was submitted to Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2016.00202
                4940421
                27462270
                Copyright © 2016 Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Wachowiak, Szulc, Kamińska, Bogacz, Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Zaprutko and Mikolajczak.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 1, Equations: 1, References: 62, Pages: 18, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Narodowe Centrum Nauki 10.13039/501100004281
                Award ID: UMO-2013/09/B/NZ7/01279
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article