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      Activation of neurons in rat trigeminal subnucleus caudalis by different irritant chemicals applied to oral or ocular mucosa.

      Journal of Neurophysiology

      Alkaloids, Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, pharmacology, Benzodioxoles, Capsaicin, Conjunctiva, innervation, Cornea, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Electrophysiology, Ethanol, Ganglionic Stimulants, Histamine, Irritants, Male, Mouth Mucosa, Mustard Plant, Neurons, drug effects, physiology, Nicotine, Piperidines, Plant Extracts, Plant Oils, Polyunsaturated Alkamides, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Reaction Time, Serotonin, Sodium Chloride, Solvents, Stimulation, Chemical, Tachyphylaxis, Tongue, Trigeminal Nuclei, cytology

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          To investigate the role of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in neural mechanisms of irritation, we recorded single-unit responses to application of a variety of irritant chemicals to the tongue or ocular mucosa in thiopental-anesthetized rats. Recordings were made from wide dynamic range (WDR) and nociceptive-specific units in superficial layers of the dorsomedial caudalis (0-3 mm caudal to obex) responsive to mechanical stimulation and noxious heating of the ipsilateral tongue ("tongue" units) and from WDR units in ventrolateral caudalis (0-2 caudal to obex) responsive to mechanical and noxious thermal stimulation of cornea-conjunctiva and frequently also surrounding skin ("cornea-conjunctival" units). The following chemicals were delivered topically (0.1 ml) onto the dorsal anterior tongue or instilled into the ipsilateral eye: capsaicin (0.001-1% = 3.3 x 10(-2) to 3.3 x 10(-5) M), ethanol (15-80%), histamine (0.01-10% = 9 x 10(-1) to 9 x 10(-4) M), mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate, 4-100% = 4 x 10(-1) to 10 M), NaCl (0.5-5 M), nicotine (0.01-10% = 6 x 10(-1) to 6 x 10(-4) M), acidified phosphate buffer (pH 1-6), piperine (0.01-1% = 3.5 x 10(-2) to 3.5 x 10(-4) M), serotonin (5-HT; 0.3-3% = 1.4 x 10(-1) to 1.4 x 10(-2) M), and carbonated water. The dose-response relationship and possible tachyphylaxis were tested for each chemical. Of 32 tongue units, 31 responded to one or more, and frequently all, chemicals tested. The population responded to 75.3% of the various chemicals tested (

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