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      The clinical aspects of pituitary tumour genetics

      1 , , 2

      Endocrine

      Springer US

      Pituitary, Tumour, Genetics, FIPA, MEN

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pituitary tumours are usually benign and relatively common intracranial tumours, with under- and overexpression of pituitary hormones and local mass effects causing considerable morbidity and increased mortality. While most pituitary tumours are sporadic, around 5% of the cases arise in a familial setting, either isolated [familial isolated pituitary adenoma, related to AIP or X-linked acrogigantism], or in a syndromic disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 4, Carney complex, McCune–Albright syndrome, phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma with pituitary adenoma, DICER1 syndrome, Lynch syndrome, and USP8-related syndrome. Genetically determined pituitary tumours usually present at younger age and show aggressive behaviour, and are often resistant to different treatment modalities.

          Subject

          In this practical summary, we take a practical approach: which genetic syndromes should be considered in case of different presentation, such as tumour type, family history, age of onset and additional clinical features of the patient.

          Conclusion

          The identification of the causative mutation allows genetic and clinical screening of relatives at risk, resulting in earlier diagnosis, a better therapeutic response and ultimately to better long-term outcomes.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Germ-line mutations in p27Kip1 cause a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans.

          MENX is a recessive multiple endocrine neoplasia-like syndrome in the rat. The tumor spectrum in MENX overlaps those of human multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 and 2. We mapped the MenX locus to the distal part of rat chromosome 4, excluding the homologs of the genes responsible for the MEN syndromes (RET and MEN1) and syndromes with an endocrine tumor component (VHL and NF1). We report the fine mapping of the disease locus and the identification of a homozygous frameshift mutation in Cdkn1b, encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). As a consequence of the mutation, MENX-affected rats show dramatic reduction in p27(Kip1) protein. We have identified a germ-line nonsense mutation in the human CDKN1B gene in a MEN1 mutation-negative patient presenting with pituitary and parathyroid tumors. Expanded pedigree analysis shows that the mutation is associated with the development of an MEN1-like phenotype in multiple generations. Our findings demonstrate that germ-line mutations in p27(Kip1) can predispose to the development of multiple endocrine tumors in both rats and humans.
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            Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4)

            Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands within a single patient. Four major forms of MEN, which are autosomal dominant disorders, are recognized and referred to as: MEN type 1 (MEN1), due to menin mutations; MEN2 (previously MEN2A) due to mutations of a tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by the rearranged during transfection (RET) protoncogene; MEN3 (previously MEN2B) due to RET mutations; and MEN4 due to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDNK1B) mutations. Each MEN type is associated with the occurrence of specific tumors. Thus, MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors; MEN2 is characterized by the occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in association with phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid tumors; MEN3 is characterized by the occurrence of MTC and phaeochromocytoma in association with a marfanoid habitus, mucosal neuromas, medullated corneal fibers and intestinal autonomic ganglion dysfunction, leading to megacolon; and MEN4, which is also referred to as MENX, is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumors in possible association with tumors of the adrenals, kidneys, and reproductive organs. This review will focus on the clinical and molecular details of the MEN1 and MEN4 syndromes. The gene causing MEN1 is located on chromosome 11q13, and encodes a 610 amino-acid protein, menin, which has functions in cell division, genome stability, and transcription regulation. Menin, which acts as scaffold protein, may increase or decrease gene expression by epigenetic regulation of gene expression via histone methylation. Thus, menin by forming a subunit of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) complexes that trimethylate histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4), facilitates activation of transcriptional activity in target genes such as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors; and by interacting with the suppressor of variegation 3–9 homolog family protein (SUV39H1) to mediate H3K methylation, thereby silencing transcriptional activity of target genes. MEN1-associated tumors harbor germline and somatic mutations, consistent with Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. Genetic diagnosis to identify individuals with germline MEN1 mutations has facilitated appropriate targeting of clinical, biochemical and radiological screening for this high risk group of patients for whom earlier implementation of treatments can then be considered. MEN4 is caused by heterozygous mutations of CDNK1B which encodes the 196 amino-acid CDK1 p27Kip1, which is activated by H3K4 methylation.
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              Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses in patients with germ-line AIP mutations and pituitary adenomas: an international collaborative study.

              AIP mutations (AIPmut) give rise to a pituitary adenoma predisposition that occurs in familial isolated pituitary adenomas and less often in sporadic cases. The clinical and therapeutic features of AIPmut-associated pituitary adenomas have not been studied comprehensively. The objective of the study was to assess clinical/therapeutic characteristics of AIPmut pituitary adenomas. This study was an international, multicenter, retrospective case collection/database analysis. The study was conducted at 36 tertiary referral endocrine and clinical genetics departments. Patients included 96 patients with germline AIPmut and pituitary adenomas and 232 matched AIPmut-negative acromegaly controls. The AIPmut population was predominantly young and male (63.5%); first symptoms occurred as children/adolescents in 50%. At diagnosis, most tumors were macroadenomas (93.3%); extension and invasion was common. Somatotropinomas comprised 78.1% of the cohort; there were also prolactinomas (n = 13), nonsecreting adenomas (n = 7), and a TSH-secreting adenoma. AIPmut somatotropinomas were larger (P = 0.00026), with higher GH levels (P = 0.00068), more frequent extension (P = 0.018) and prolactin cosecretion (P = 0.00023), and occurred 2 decades before controls (P < 0.000001). Gigantism was more common in the AIPmut group (P < 0.000001). AIPmut somatotropinoma patients underwent more surgical interventions (P = 0.00069) and had lower decreases in GH (P = 0.00037) and IGF-I (P = 0.028) and less tumor shrinkage with somatostatin analogs (P < 0.00001) vs. controls. AIPmut prolactinomas occurred generally in young males and frequently required surgery or radiotherapy. AIPmut pituitary adenomas have clinical features that may negatively impact treatment efficacy. Predisposition for aggressive disease in young patients, often in a familial setting, suggests that earlier diagnosis of AIPmut pituitary adenomas may have clinical utility.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                m.korbonits@qmul.ac.uk
                Journal
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Springer US (New York )
                1355-008X
                1559-0100
                4 February 2021
                4 February 2021
                2021
                : 71
                : 3
                : 663-674
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Divison of Endocrinology, 2nd Department of Medicine, Health Center, Hungarian Defence Forces, Budapest, Hungary
                [2 ]GRID grid.4868.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2171 1133, Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, , Queen Mary University of London, ; London, UK
                Article
                2633
                10.1007/s12020-021-02633-0
                8016799
                33543431
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                pituitary, tumour, genetics, fipa, men

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