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      Response to: “Some considerations about γδ and CD8+ T-cell responses in blood after gluten challenge in treated celiac disease”

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          Dietary gluten triggers concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and γδ T cells in celiac disease.

          Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disease driven by dietary gluten and gluten-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. In celiac patients on a gluten-free diet, exposure to gluten induces the appearance of gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells with gut-homing potential in the peripheral blood. Here we show that gluten exposure also induces the appearance of activated, gut-homing CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in the peripheral blood. Single-cell T-cell receptor sequence analysis indicates that both of these cell populations have highly focused T-cell receptor repertoires, indicating that their induction is antigen-driven. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role of antigen in the induction of CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in celiac disease and demonstrate a coordinated response by all three of the major types of T cells. More broadly, these responses may parallel adaptive immune responses to viral pathogens and other systemic autoimmune diseases.
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            HLA-DQ:gluten tetramer test in blood gives better detection of coeliac patients than biopsy after 14-day gluten challenge.

            Initiation of a gluten-free diet without proper diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease is a frequent and demanding problem. Recent diagnostic guidelines suggest a gluten challenge of at least 14 days followed by duodenal biopsy in such patients. The rate of false-negative outcome of this approach remains unclear. We studied responses to 14-day gluten challenge in subjects with treated coeliac disease.
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              Evaluation of T cells in blood after a short gluten challenge for coeliac disease diagnosis

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Mucosal Immunology
                Mucosal Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1933-0219
                1935-3456
                June 09 2021
                Article
                10.1038/s41385-021-00422-6
                © 2021

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