Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disease driven by dietary gluten and gluten-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. In celiac patients on a gluten-free diet, exposure to gluten induces the appearance of gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells with gut-homing potential in the peripheral blood. Here we show that gluten exposure also induces the appearance of activated, gut-homing CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in the peripheral blood. Single-cell T-cell receptor sequence analysis indicates that both of these cell populations have highly focused T-cell receptor repertoires, indicating that their induction is antigen-driven. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role of antigen in the induction of CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in celiac disease and demonstrate a coordinated response by all three of the major types of T cells. More broadly, these responses may parallel adaptive immune responses to viral pathogens and other systemic autoimmune diseases.