This dataset includes information regarding fungal strains collected during several Antarctic expeditions: the Italian National Antarctic Research program (PNRA) expeditions “X” (1994/1995), “XII” (1996/1997), “XVII” (2001/2002), “XIX” (2003/2004), “XXVI” (2010/2011), the Czech “IPY Expedition” (2007–2009) and a number of strains donated by E. Imre Friedmann (Florida State University) in 2001, isolated from samples collected during the U.S.A. Antarctic Expeditions of 1980-1982. Samples, consisting of colonized rocks, mosses, lichens, sediments and soils, were collected in Southern and Northern Victoria Land of the continental Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 259 different strains were isolated, belonging to 32 genera and 38 species, out of which 12 represented new taxa. These strains are preserved in the Antarctic section of the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE), which represents one of the collections associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, Italy), located at the Laboratory of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy). The CCFEE hosts a total of 486 Antarctic fungal strains from worldwide extreme environments. Distributional records are reported here for 259 of these strains. The holotypes of the 12 new species included in this dataset are maintained at CCFEE and in other international collections: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, Netherlands); DBVPG, Industrial Yeasts Collection (University of Perugia, Italy); DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Brunswick, Germany); IMI, International Mycological Institute (London, U.K.).