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Prefrontal cortex activation during a cognitive reappraisal task is associated with real-life negative affect reactivity

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      Abstract

      The neural substrate of cognitive reappraisal has been well-mapped. Individuals who successfully downregulate negative affect (NA) by reshaping their thoughts about a potentially emotional situation show augmented activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with attenuated activity in the amygdala. We performed functional neuroimaging with experience sampling to determine whether individual differences in brain activation correspond to differences in real-life NA. While being scanned, 69 female students (aged 18–25 years) were asked to perform a cognitive reappraisal task. In addition, repeated assessments (5/day, 14 days) of affect and minor events in real-life were conducted. Individual t-maps were created for an instructed downregulation contrast (downregulate negative–attend negative) and an uninstructed regulation contrast (attend negative–attend neutral). Mean beta values were extracted from a priori defined regions of interest in the bilateral amygdala and PFC and were correlated with three daily life NA measures: baseline (mean) NA, NA variability, and NA reactivity to negative events. Only one out of twelve correlations for the amygdalae was nominally significant, which did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. PFC activation in the instructed and uninstructed regulation contrasts explained approximately 10% of the variance in NA reactivity; stronger recruitment during the attend-negative condition was correlated with lower reactivity levels. The degree to which individuals spontaneously engage frontal clusters may be a critical aspect of real-life emotional reactivity. The findings of this study provide a partial external validation of the cognitive reappraisal task, suggesting that frontal brain activation during implicit task conditions may have the strongest connection with real-life behaviors.

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      Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain.

      An anatomical parcellation of the spatially normalized single-subject high-resolution T1 volume provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) (D. L. Collins et al., 1998, Trans. Med. Imag. 17, 463-468) was performed. The MNI single-subject main sulci were first delineated and further used as landmarks for the 3D definition of 45 anatomical volumes of interest (AVOI) in each hemisphere. This procedure was performed using a dedicated software which allowed a 3D following of the sulci course on the edited brain. Regions of interest were then drawn manually with the same software every 2 mm on the axial slices of the high-resolution MNI single subject. The 90 AVOI were reconstructed and assigned a label. Using this parcellation method, three procedures to perform the automated anatomical labeling of functional studies are proposed: (1) labeling of an extremum defined by a set of coordinates, (2) percentage of voxels belonging to each of the AVOI intersected by a sphere centered by a set of coordinates, and (3) percentage of voxels belonging to each of the AVOI intersected by an activated cluster. An interface with the Statistical Parametric Mapping package (SPM, J. Ashburner and K. J. Friston, 1999, Hum. Brain Mapp. 7, 254-266) is provided as a freeware to researchers of the neuroimaging community. We believe that this tool is an improvement for the macroscopical labeling of activated area compared to labeling assessed using the Talairach atlas brain in which deformations are well known. However, this tool does not alleviate the need for more sophisticated labeling strategies based on anatomical or cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps.
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        Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion.

        Here, we demonstrate that subject motion produces substantial changes in the timecourses of resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data despite compensatory spatial registration and regression of motion estimates from the data. These changes cause systematic but spurious correlation structures throughout the brain. Specifically, many long-distance correlations are decreased by subject motion, whereas many short-distance correlations are increased. These changes in rs-fcMRI correlations do not arise from, nor are they adequately countered by, some common functional connectivity processing steps. Two indices of data quality are proposed, and a simple method to reduce motion-related effects in rs-fcMRI analyses is demonstrated that should be flexibly implementable across a variety of software platforms. We demonstrate how application of this technique impacts our own data, modifying previous conclusions about brain development. These results suggest the need for greater care in dealing with subject motion, and the need to critically revisit previous rs-fcMRI work that may not have adequately controlled for effects of transient subject movements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets.

          Analysis and interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) data have traditionally been based on identifying areas of significance on a thresholded statistical map of the entire imaged brain volume. This form of analysis can be likened to a "fishing expedition." As we become more knowledgeable about the structure-function relationships of different brain regions, tools for a priori hypothesis testing are needed. These tools must be able to generate region of interest masks for a priori hypothesis testing consistently and with minimal effort. Current tools that generate region of interest masks required for a priori hypothesis testing can be time-consuming and are often laboratory specific. In this paper we demonstrate a method of hypothesis-driven data analysis using an automated atlas-based masking technique. We provide a powerful method of probing fMRI data using automatically generated masks based on lobar anatomy, cortical and subcortical anatomy, and Brodmann areas. Hemisphere, lobar, anatomic label, tissue type, and Brodmann area atlases were generated in MNI space based on the Talairach Daemon. Additionally, we interfaced these multivolume atlases to a widely used fMRI software package, SPM99, and demonstrate the use of the atlas tool with representative fMRI data. This tool represents a necessary evolution in fMRI data analysis for testing of more spatially complex hypotheses.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, Groningen, the Netherlands
            [2 ] Friesland Mental Health Care Services, Department of Education and Research, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands
            [3 ] University of Groningen, Department of Psychology, Groningen, the Netherlands
            [4 ] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroimaging Center, Groningen, the Netherlands
            Southwest University, CHINA
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4831-6402, Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Project administration, Role: Supervision, Role: Visualization, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Project administration, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Visualization, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Funding acquisition, Role: Resources, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Resources, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Funding acquisition, Role: Methodology, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            24 August 2018
            2018
            : 13
            : 8
            30142170 6121771 10.1371/journal.pone.0202888 PONE-D-17-37422
            © 2018 Bastiaansen et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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            Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 16
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            Funding
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100005075, Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen;
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100005075, Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen;
            Award Recipient :
            This work was supported by personal grants for excellent research from the University Medical Center Groningen to JO and AJO. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
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            Biology and Life Sciences
            Psychology
            Emotions
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            Psychology
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