53
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The crucial role of protein phosphorylation in cell signaling and its use as targeted therapy (Review)

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Protein phosphorylation is an important cellular regulatory mechanism as many enzymes and receptors are activated/deactivated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, by means of kinases and phosphatases. In particular, the protein kinases are responsible for cellular transduction signaling and their hyperactivity, malfunction or overexpression can be found in several diseases, mostly tumors. Therefore, it is evident that the use of kinase inhibitors can be valuable for the treatment of cancer. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action of phosphorylation, with particular attention to the importance of phosphorylation under physiological and pathological conditions. We also discuss the possibility of using kinase inhibitors in the treatment of tumors.

          Related collections

          Most cited references123

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cancer genes and the pathways they control.

          The revolution in cancer research can be summed up in a single sentence: cancer is, in essence, a genetic disease. In the last decade, many important genes responsible for the genesis of various cancers have been discovered, their mutations precisely identified, and the pathways through which they act characterized. The purposes of this review are to highlight examples of progress in these areas, indicate where knowledge is scarce and point out fertile grounds for future investigation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma.

            The combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK is hypothesized to improve clinical outcomes in patients with melanoma by preventing or delaying the onset of resistance observed with BRAF inhibitors alone. This randomized phase 3 study evaluated the combination of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib. We randomly assigned 495 patients with previously untreated unresectable locally advanced or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma to receive vemurafenib and cobimetinib (combination group) or vemurafenib and placebo (control group). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. The median progression-free survival was 9.9 months in the combination group and 6.2 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.68; P<0.001). The rate of complete or partial response in the combination group was 68%, as compared with 45% in the control group (P<0.001), including rates of complete response of 10% in the combination group and 4% in the control group. Progression-free survival as assessed by independent review was similar to investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Interim analyses of overall survival showed 9-month survival rates of 81% (95% CI, 75 to 87) in the combination group and 73% (95% CI, 65 to 80) in the control group. Vemurafenib and cobimetinib was associated with a nonsignificantly higher incidence of adverse events of grade 3 or higher, as compared with vemurafenib and placebo (65% vs. 59%), and there was no significant difference in the rate of study-drug discontinuation. The number of secondary cutaneous cancers decreased with the combination therapy. The addition of cobimetinib to vemurafenib was associated with a significant improvement in progression-free survival among patients with BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma, at the cost of some increase in toxicity. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; coBRIM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01689519.).
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Global survey of phosphotyrosine signaling identifies oncogenic kinases in lung cancer.

              Despite the success of tyrosine kinase-based cancer therapeutics, for most solid tumors the tyrosine kinases that drive disease remain unknown, limiting our ability to identify drug targets and predict response. Here we present the first large-scale survey of tyrosine kinase activity in lung cancer. Using a phosphoproteomic approach, we characterize tyrosine kinase signaling across 41 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and over 150 NSCLC tumors. Profiles of phosphotyrosine signaling are generated and analyzed to identify known oncogenic kinases such as EGFR and c-Met as well as novel ALK and ROS fusion proteins. Other activated tyrosine kinases such as PDGFRalpha and DDR1 not previously implicated in the genesis of NSCLC are also identified. By focusing on activated cell circuitry, the approach outlined here provides insight into cancer biology not available at the chromosomal and transcriptional levels and can be applied broadly across all human cancers.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Med
                Int. J. Mol. Med
                IJMM
                International Journal of Molecular Medicine
                D.A. Spandidos
                1107-3756
                1791-244X
                August 2017
                22 June 2017
                22 June 2017
                : 40
                : 2
                : 271-280
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Foggia University, I-71122 Foggia, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Professor Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Foggia University, Via Rovelli 48, I-71122 Foggia, Italy, E-mail: lorenzo.lomuzio@ 123456unifg.it
                Article
                ijmm-40-02-0271
                10.3892/ijmm.2017.3036
                5500920
                28656226
                99ccf8fe-3bbf-4f4f-bf6e-9c36467ae84d
                Copyright: © Ardito et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 17 January 2017
                : 11 May 2017
                Categories
                Articles

                protein phosphorylation,kinase,phosphatase,phospho-signaling networks,cancer,drug target

                Comments

                Comment on this article