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      Transcriptome MicroRNA Profiling of Bovine Mammary Glands Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

      International Journal of Molecular Sciences

      MDPI

      micrornas, mastitis, staphylococcus aureus, solexa sequencing, qrt-pcr

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          Abstract

          MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs impact the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thus, the regulation of miRNA expression profiles associated with mastitis will be conducive for its control. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was administered to the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows to construct a bacteria-type mastitis model. Total RNA was isolated from bovine mammary gland tissue samples from the S. aureus-induced mastitis group and controls. miRNAs were analyzed using Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics processing for the experimental group and control group. Two miRNA libraries were constructed respectively. A total of 370 known bovine miRNAs and 341 novel mi RNAs were detected for the S. aureus and 358 known bovine miRNAs and 232 novel miRNAs for control groups. A total of 77 miRNAs in the S. aureus group showed significant differences compared to the control group. GO (Gene Ontology) analysis showed these target genes were involved in the regulation of cells, binding, etc., while KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis showed that these genes were enriched in endocytosis, and olfactory transduction pathways involved in cancer. These results provide an experimental basis to reveal the cause and regulatory mechanism of mastitis and also suggest the potential of miRNAs to serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Physiological and pathological roles for microRNAs in the immune system.

          Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as important regulators of gene expression, and they function by repressing specific target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Now, studies of miRNAs are resolving some unsolved issues in immunology. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have pivotal roles in the regulation of both cell development and function. Furthermore, when miRNAs are aberrantly expressed they can contribute to pathological conditions involving the immune system, such as cancer and autoimmunity; they have also been shown to be useful as diagnostic and prognostic indicators of disease type and severity. This Review discusses recent advances in our understanding of both the intended functions of miRNAs in managing immune cell biology and their pathological roles when their expression is dysregulated.
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            Regulation of progenitor cell proliferation and granulocyte function by microRNA-223.

            MicroRNAs are abundant in animal genomes and have been predicted to have important roles in a broad range of gene expression programmes. Despite this prominence, there is a dearth of functional knowledge regarding individual mammalian microRNAs. Using a loss-of-function allele in mice, we report here that the myeloid-specific microRNA-223 (miR-223) negatively regulates progenitor proliferation and granulocyte differentiation and activation. miR-223 (also called Mirn223) mutant mice have an expanded granulocytic compartment resulting from a cell-autonomous increase in the number of granulocyte progenitors. We show that Mef2c, a transcription factor that promotes myeloid progenitor proliferation, is a target of miR-223, and that genetic ablation of Mef2c suppresses progenitor expansion and corrects the neutrophilic phenotype in miR-223 null mice. In addition, granulocytes lacking miR-223 are hypermature, hypersensitive to activating stimuli and display increased fungicidal activity. As a consequence of this neutrophil hyperactivity, miR-223 mutant mice spontaneously develop inflammatory lung pathology and exhibit exaggerated tissue destruction after endotoxin challenge. Our data support a model in which miR-223 acts as a fine-tuner of granulocyte production and the inflammatory response.
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              Molecular profiling uncovers a p53-associated role for microRNA-31 in inhibiting the proliferation of serous ovarian carcinomas and other cancers.

              MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate complex patterns of gene expression, and the relevance of altered miRNA expression to ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. By comprehensively profiling expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in serous ovarian tumors and cell lines and normal ovarian surface epithelium, we identified hundreds of potential miRNA-mRNA targeting associations underlying cancer. Functional overexpression of miR-31, the most underexpressed miRNA in serous ovarian cancer, repressed predicted miR-31 gene targets including the cell cycle regulator E2F2. MIR31 and CDKN2A, which encode p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A), are located at 9p21.3, a genomic region commonly deleted in ovarian and other cancers. p14(ARF) promotes p53 activity, and E2F2 overexpression in p53 wild-type cells normally leads via p14(ARF) to an induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. In a number of serous cancer cell lines with a dysfunctional p53 pathway (i.e., OVCAR8, OVCA433, and SKOV3), miR-31 overexpression inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, in other lines (i.e., HEY and OVSAYO) with functional p53, miR-31 had no effect. Additionally, the osteosarcoma cell line U2OS and the prostate cancer cell line PC3 (p14(ARF)-deficient and p53-deficient, respectively) were also sensitive to miR-31. Furthermore, miR-31 overexpression induced a global gene expression pattern in OVCAR8 associated with better prognosis in tumors from patients with advanced stage serous ovarian cancer, potentially affecting many genes underlying disease progression. Our findings reveal that loss of miR-31 is associated with defects in the p53 pathway and functions in serous ovarian cancer and other cancers, suggesting that patients with cancers deficient in p53 activity might benefit from therapeutic delivery of miR-31.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25749476
                4394461
                10.3390/ijms16034997

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Molecular biology

                micrornas, mastitis, staphylococcus aureus, solexa sequencing, qrt-pcr

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