Plasma lipoprotein (a) (LP(a)) concentrations are increased in patients with end-stage renal disease. Considering the influence of the apolipoprotein (a) (Apo(a)) polymorphism and the mode of dialysis in this prospective longitudinal study, we compared Lp(a) concentrations before and after the first 6 months of a successful kidney transplantation in 125 recipient patients. Apo(a) phenotyping was performed by using SDS-PAGE and SDS-agarose, isoforms were classified into high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW). Before the graft, the Lp(a) concentrations were significantly higher in CAPD than in hemodialysis patients (p = 0.021). Six months after transplantation, Lp(a) fell in both treatment groups. This decrease occurred within both LMW and HMW but to a different extent: median relative variations were –35 and –50%, respectively (p = 0.048). Among patients with Lp(a) concentration >30 mg/dl 6 months after transplantation, 74% had LMW Apo(a) isoform while the remaining 26% had HMW isoform. Successful renal transplantation leads rapidly to a correction of Lp(a) concentrations, especially in patients treated with CAPD who have higher Lp(a) levels. The most important factor seems to be the LMW status corresponding to high Lp(a) levels.