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      A 30-year update of the climbers and vascular epiphytes inventory of the Cerro Ñielol Natural Monument (La Araucanía, Chile): a database

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          Abstract

          Background

          Plant species diversity may be seriously threatened in ecotone zones under global climate change. Therefore, keeping updated inventories of indicator species seems to be a good strategy for monitoring wild areas located in these strips. The database comes from an inventory of climbers and vascular epiphytes conducted in the Cerro Ñielol Natural Monument, a small protected area (89 hectares) located in Chile's Mediterranean-temperate phytogeographic region, within the boundaries of the city of Temuco, La Araucaína Region.

          The data represent the update of the first inventory carried out between 1980 and 1984. In this current contribution, data collection was carried out in 27 quadrats using the trails as transects. The data provide the record of 45 species (16 climbers, 15 epiphytes and 10 trees), including two accidental epiphytes ( Acer psudoplatanus L. and Gavilea odoratissima (L.) Endl. ex Griseb.), two species that can be found as epiphytes or terricolous ( Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (L.) Sm. and Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L.f.) Druce) and one species ( Chusquea quila Kunth) that can be found as terricolous and climber. Species of interest were recorded on live trees (n = 51), snags (n = 9), stumps (n = 4), fallen log (n = 5) and on the forest soil (n = 17).

          The most abundant climbers were Hydrangea serratifolia (Hook. & Arn.) F. Phil. (n = 77 stems), Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Pav. (n = 70 stems), Raukaua valdiviensis (Gay) Frodin (n = 48 stems) and Cissus striata Ruiz & Pav. (n = 33 stems). In contrast, the most abundant epiphytes were Hymenophyllum plicatum Kaulf. (n = 1728 fronds) and Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (L.) Sm. (n = 2375 fronds). These latter two species represent the highest frequency and abundance in the whole inventory, respectively. Several ecosystem traits are, in fact, new reports since the first inventory was conducted in 1980-1984; for example, the presence of the filmy fern Hymenophyllum tunbrigense , the record of the climber Elytropus chilensis , fallen logs or the species-host relationship. Accordingly, the database is made available in this manuscript.

          New information

          This study updates the climbers and vascular epiphyte species list in the Cerro Ñielol Natural Monument, a small patch of forest under severe anthropogenic pressure. This protected area is characterised by floristic elements of the Mediterranean and temperate phytogeographic region of Chile, in a zone where forests have been severely deforested. The database includes the record of 45 species – including six species that were not recorded in the first inventory – in 211 records.

          The main novelty of this contribution is the systematic classification of species, on ten traits rarely reported in a floristic inventory: (i) species taxonomic identity (as usual), (ii) species abundance (number of stems and fronds), (iii) habit (herb, shrub, subshrub, tree), (iv) growth form (accidental epiphyte, epiphyte, vine, liana, terricolous), (v) climbing mechanism (tendrils, adhesive roots, twining, scrambling), (vi) microhabitat (fallen log, footpath slope, soil, stump, trunk), (vii) host species (where appropriate), (viii) host condition (live, woody debris, snag), (ix) host diameter at breast height (DBH) and (x) target species found over 2.3 m on trees.

          Thirty years after the first inventory conducted between 1980 and 1984, the climber assemblage has remained relatively stable over time, although there are some differences in species composition. Specifically, the climber Elytropus chilensis are recorded in the current inventory, but the Mitraria coccinea (recorded in the first inventory) is not present. On the other hand, the epiphyte assemblage showed an increase in the species richness of filmy ferns, with five previously unrecorded species: Hymenophyllum cuneatum , H. dicranotrichum , H. pectinatum , H. peltatum and H. tunbrigense . One of the novel features was the presence of Sarmienta scandens and Synammia feuillei on a Pinus radiata D. Don tree. Additionally, the introduced species Acer pseudoplatanus is included, which is new to the Chilean vascular plant catalogue. All these data are available in the present manuscript.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.

          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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            Interactions between climate and habitat loss effects on biodiversity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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              Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems

              Urgent need for conservation and restoration measures to improve landscape connectivity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2021
                15 September 2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratorio de Planificación Territorial, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco, Chile Laboratorio de Planificación Territorial, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco Temuco Chile
                [2 ] Pedagogía Media en Ciencias Naturales y Biología, Facultad de Educación, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco, Chile Pedagogía Media en Ciencias Naturales y Biología, Facultad de Educación, Universidad Católica de Temuco Temuco Chile
                [3 ] Geografía, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco, Chile Geografía, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco Temuco Chile
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich ( jpincheira@ 123456uct.cl ).

                Academic editor: Anatoliy Khapugin

                Article
                72521 17559
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e72521
                8458268
                Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Bárbara Vallejos, Jorge Huincaguelo, Ulises Zambrano, Fernando Peña-Cortés

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 32
                Funding
                Funded by: Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico, Tecnológico y de Innovación Tecnológica 501100010751 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100010751
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Plantae
                Angiospermae
                Gymnospermae
                Lycopodiophyta
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                South America
                Chile

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