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      Leu 8 and Pro 8 oxytocin agonism differs across human, macaque, and marmoset vasopressin 1a receptors

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          Abstract

          Oxytocin (OXT) is an important neuromodulator of social behaviors via activation of both oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and vasopressin (AVP) 1a receptors (AVPR1a). Marmosets are neotropical primates with a modified OXT ligand (Pro 8-OXT), and this ligand shows significant coevolution with traits including social monogamy and litter size. Pro 8-OXT produces more potent and efficacious responses at primate OXTR and stronger behavioral effects than the consensus mammalian OXT ligand (Leu 8-OXT). Here, we tested whether OXT/AVP ligands show differential levels of crosstalk at primate AVPR1a. We measured binding affinities and Ca 2+ signaling responses of AVP, Pro 8-OXT and Leu 8-OXT at human, macaque, and marmoset AVPR1a. We found that AVP binds with higher affinity than OXT across AVPR1a, and marmoset AVPR1a show a 10-fold lower OXT binding affinity compared to human and macaque AVPR1a. Both Leu 8-OXT and Pro 8-OXT produce a less efficacious response than AVP at human AVPR1a and higher efficacious response than AVP at marmoset AVPR1a. These data suggest that OXT might partially antagonize endogenous human AVPR1a signaling and enhance marmoset AVPR1a signaling. These findings aid in further understanding inconsistencies observed following systemic intranasal administration of OXT and provide important insights into taxon-specific differences in nonapeptide ligand/receptor coevolution and behavior.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Sniffing around oxytocin: review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy

          The popularity of oxytocin (OT) has grown exponentially during the past decade, and so has the number of OT trials in healthy and clinical groups. We take stock of the evidence from these studies to explore potentials and limitations of pharmacotherapeutic applications. In healthy participants, intranasally administered OT leads to better emotion recognition and more trust in conspecifics, but the effects appear to be moderated by context (perceived threat of the ‘out-group'), personality and childhood experiences. In individuals with untoward childhood experiences, positive behavioral or neurobiological effects seem lowered or absent. In 19 clinical trials, covering autism, social anxiety, postnatal depression, obsessive-compulsive problems, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress, the effects of OT administration were tested, with doses ranging from 15 IU to more than 7000 IU. The combined effect size was d=0.32 (N=304; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.47; P<0.01). However, of all disorders, only studies on autism spectrum disorder showed a significant combined effect size (d=0.57; N=68; 95% CI: 0.15–0.99; P<0.01). We hypothesize that for some of the other disorders, etiological factors rooted in negative childhood experiences may also have a role in the diminished effectiveness of treatment with OT.
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            Pharmacologic rescue of impaired cognitive flexibility, social deficits, increased aggression, and seizure susceptibility in oxytocin receptor null mice: a neurobehavioral model of autism.

            Oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a treatment to improve social behavior in autistic patients. Accordingly, the OT (Oxt(-/-)) and the OT receptor null mice (Oxtr(-/-)) display autistic-like deficits in social behavior, increased aggression, and reduced ultrasonic vocalization. Oxtr(-/-) mice were characterized for general health, sociability, social novelty, cognitive flexibility, aggression, and seizure susceptibility. Because vasopressin (AVP) and OT cooperate in controlling social behavior, learning, and aggression, they were tested for possible rescue of the impaired behaviors. Primary hyppocampal cultures from Oxtr(+/+) and Oxtr(-/-) mouse embryos were established to investigate the balance between gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate synapses and the expression levels of OT and AVP (V1a) receptors were determined by autoradiography. Oxtr(-/-) mice display two additional, highly relevant, phenotypic characteristics: 1) a resistance to change in a learned pattern of behavior, comparable to restricted interests and repetitive behavior in autism, and 2) an increased susceptibility to seizures, a frequent and clinically relevant symptom of autism. We also show that intracerebral administration of both OT and AVP lowers aggression and fully reverts social and learning defects by acting on V1a receptors and that seizure susceptibility is antagonized by peripherally administered OT. Finally, we detect a decreased ratio of GABA-ergic versus total presynapses in hippocampal neurons of Oxtr(-/-) mice. Autistic-like symptoms are rescued on administration of AVP and OT to young Oxtr(-/-) adult animals. The Oxtr(-/-) mouse is thus instrumental to investigate the neurochemical and synaptic abnormalities underlying autistic-like disturbances and to test new strategies of pharmacologic intervention. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Developmental consequences of oxytocin.

               C.Sue Carter (2003)
              This paper examines the developmental effects of the mammalian neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT). In adults, OT is the most abundant neuropeptide in the hypothalamus and serves integrative functions, coordinating behavioral and physiological processes. For example, OT has been implicated in parturition, lactation, maternal behavior and pair bond formation. In addition, OT is capable of moderating behavioral responses to various stressors as well as the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neonates may be exposed to hormones of maternal origin, possibly including peptides administered to the mother in the perinatal period to hasten or delay birth and in milk; however, whether peptide hormones from the mother influence the developing infant remains to be determined. In rodents, endogenous OT is first synthesized during the early postnatal period, although its functions at this time are not well known. Experiments in neonatal prairie voles have documented the capacity of OT and OT receptor antagonists to have immediate and lifelong consequences for social behaviors, including adult pair bonding and parental behaviors, as well as the reactivity of the HPA axis; most of these effects are sexually dimorphic. Possible mechanisms for such effects, including long-lasting changes in OT and vasopressin, are summarized.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                amustoe@unomaha.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                29 October 2019
                29 October 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0775 5412, GRID grid.266815.e, Department of Psychology, , Callitrichid Research Center, University of Nebraska at Omaha, ; Omaha, NE USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0666 4105, GRID grid.266813.8, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, , University of Nebraska Medical Center, ; Omaha, NE USA
                Article
                52024
                10.1038/s41598-019-52024-9
                6820730
                31664130
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                neuroscience, calcium signalling

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