Mitral valve surgery is often complicated by a postoperative low cardiac output state. In addition, some patients may have pre-existing pulmonary hypertension. Conventional inotropes, such as dopamine and dobutamine, tend to increase pulmonary vascular resistance. However, enoximone has both inotropic and vasodilatory properties. Ten patients, who had undergone mitral valve surgery and in whom weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was unsuccessful without inotropic support, were treated with enoximone, 1 mg/ kg loading dose plus 10 µg/kg/min continuous infusion, to assist in weaning from bypass. A significant and sustained increase in cardiac index was achieved without an increase in heart rate. At the same time, mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular and pulmonary vascular resistances were significantly decreased.