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      Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Measuring the Volumetric Indices in Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Correlation with Hypertension and Renal Function

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          Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if renal volumetric indices can be accurately measured using MRI, and if these volumetric indices are associated with hypertension and renal function in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods: For testing the accuracy of the MRI-based volume measurements that we proposed for clinical trial, we designed phantoms to simulate cysts within the kidney. Fifty-six patients with ADPKD were included in this study, and their respiratory compensated T<sub>2</sub>-weighted fast spin-echo images were acquired. The total kidney volume (Vt), cyst volume (Vc), and noncystic parenchymal volume (Vp) were measured and the percent cyst volume (Pc) was calculated. These volumetric indices were compared with the disease progression in the ADPKD patients. Results: The MRI measures of the phantoms were accurate. The Vt, Vc and Pc were significantly greater in the hypertensive group (n = 35) than in the normotensive group (n = 21) (p < 0.01). The Vt, Vc and Pc were significantly greater in the renal failure group (n = 23) than in the normal renal function group (n = 33) (p < 0.01). The Vt, Vc, and Pc were inversely correlated with the creatinine clearance. Conclusion: MRI is a reliable method to measure renal volumetric indices. The MRI-based volume measurements can be employed as useful markers for the progression of disease in ADPKD patients.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

           Aaron Gabow (1993)
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            Renal structure in early autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) cohort.

            Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by gradual renal enlargement and cyst growth prior to loss of renal function. Standard radiographic imaging has not provided the resolution and accuracy necessary to detect small changes in renal volume or to reliably measure renal cyst volumes. The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies in Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) is longitudinally observing ADPKD individuals using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine if change in renal and cyst volumes can be detected over a short period of time, and if they correlate with decline in renal function early in disease. Standardization studies were conducted in phantoms and four subjects at each participating clinical center. After, in the full-scale protocol, healthy ADPKD individuals 15 to 45 years old with creatinine clearance>70 mL/min underwent standardized MR renal imaging, renal iothalamate clearance, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and determination of 24-hour urinary albumin and electrolyte excretion. Stereology was used from T1-weighted images to quantify renal volume, and region-growing thresholding was used from T2-weighted images to determine cyst volume. Renal structures were evaluated in relation to demographic, clinical, and biochemical variables using means/medians, standard deviations, and Pearson correlations. Reliability coefficients for MR renal and cyst volume measurements in phantoms were 99.9% and 89.2%, respectively. In the full-scale protocol, 241 ADPKD individuals (145 women and 96 men) were enrolled. Total renal, cyst, and % cyst volume were significantly greater in each decade group. Hypertensive individuals demonstrated greater renal, cyst, and % cyst volume than normotensive subjects. Age-adjusted renal (r = -0.31, P < 0.0001), cyst (r = -0.36, P < 0.0001), and % cyst volume (r = -0.35, P < 0.0001) were inversely related to glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Age-adjusted renal volume (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001), cystic (r = 0.39, P < 0.0001, and % cyst volume (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) were related with urinary albumin excretion. MR measures of renal and cyst volume are reliable and accurate in patients with ADPKD. ADPKD is characterized by significant cystic involvement that increases with age. Structure (renal and cyst volume) and function (GFR) are inversely related and directly related with the presence of hypertension and urinary albumin excretion in individuals with normal renal function.
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              The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

              A high incidence of hypertension (50 to 75 percent) occurs early in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Cyst enlargement, causing bilateral renal ischemia and subsequent release of renin, is proposed as the cause of this form of hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations during short-term and long-term converting-enzyme inhibition in 14 patients with hypertension due to polycystic kidney disease, 9 patients with essential hypertension, 11 normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease, and 13 normal subjects. The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, body-surface area, degree of hypertension, sodium excretion, and renal function. During the short-term study, the mean (+/- SE) plasma renin activity was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the patients with essential hypertension, in the supine (0.36 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 ng per liter.second, P = 0.05) and upright positions (1.03 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.08 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.03) and after converting-enzyme inhibition (1.97 +/- 0.28 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.17 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.0006). The mean arterial pressures measured in the supine and upright positions and the plasma aldosterone concentrations measured in the upright position were significantly higher in the normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the normal subjects. After six weeks of converting-enzyme inhibition, renal plasma flow increased (P less than 0.005), and both renal vascular resistance (P less than 0.007) and the filtration fraction (P less than 0.02) decreased significantly in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease but not in the patients with essential hypertension. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is stimulated significantly more in hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in comparable patients with essential hypertension. The increased renin release, perhaps due to renal ischemia caused by cyst expansion, probably contributes to the early development of hypertension in polycystic kidney disease.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                July 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 103
                : 4
                : c173-c180
                Departments of aRadiology and bNephrology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                92915 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;103:c173–c180
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 33, Pages: 1
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