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      Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory.

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          Abstract

          During tactile perception, long-range intracortical top-down axonal projections are essential for processing sensory information. Whether these projections regulate sleep-dependent long-term memory consolidation is unknown. We altered top-down inputs from higher-order cortex to sensory cortex during sleep and examined the consolidation of memories acquired earlier during awake texture perception. Mice learned novel textures and consolidated them during sleep. Within the first hour of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, optogenetic inhibition of top-down projecting axons from secondary motor cortex (M2) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) impaired sleep-dependent reactivation of S1 neurons and memory consolidation. In NREM sleep and sleep-deprivation states, closed-loop asynchronous or synchronous M2-S1 coactivation, respectively, reduced or prolonged memory retention. Top-down cortical information flow in NREM sleep is thus required for perceptual memory consolidation.

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          Most cited references26

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          Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration.

          Sleep is universal, tightly regulated, and its loss impairs cognition. But why does the brain need to disconnect from the environment for hours every day? The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY) proposes that sleep is the price the brain pays for plasticity. During a waking episode, learning statistical regularities about the current environment requires strengthening connections throughout the brain. This increases cellular needs for energy and supplies, decreases signal-to-noise ratios, and saturates learning. During sleep, spontaneous activity renormalizes net synaptic strength and restores cellular homeostasis. Activity-dependent down-selection of synapses can also explain the benefits of sleep on memory acquisition, consolidation, and integration. This happens through the offline, comprehensive sampling of statistical regularities incorporated in neuronal circuits over a lifetime. This Perspective considers the rationale and evidence for SHY and points to open issues related to sleep and plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Object recognition in rats and mice: a one-trial non-matching-to-sample learning task to study 'recognition memory'.

            Rats and mice have a tendency to interact more with a novel object than with a familiar object. This tendency has been used by behavioral pharmacologists and neuroscientists to study learning and memory. A popular protocol for such research is the object-recognition task. Animals are first placed in an apparatus and allowed to explore an object. After a prescribed interval, the animal is returned to the apparatus, which now contains the familiar object and a novel object. Object recognition is distinguished by more time spent interacting with the novel object. Although the exact processes that underlie this 'recognition memory' requires further elucidation, this method has been used to study mutant mice, aging deficits, early developmental influences, nootropic manipulations, teratological drug exposure and novelty seeking.
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              Measurement of Linear Dependence and Feedback between Multiple Time Series

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science (New York, N.Y.)
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1095-9203
                0036-8075
                Jun 10 2016
                : 352
                : 6291
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory for Behavioral Neurophysiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan. Department of Neuroscience II, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellow, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0083, Japan.
                [2 ] Laboratory for Behavioral Neurophysiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
                [3 ] Laboratory for Neural Circuit Theory, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
                [4 ] Department of Neuroscience II, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
                [5 ] Laboratory for Circuit and Behavioral Physiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
                [6 ] Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
                [7 ] Laboratory for Behavioral Neurophysiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan. masa_murayama@brain.riken.jp.
                Article
                science.aaf0902
                10.1126/science.aaf0902
                27229145
                a136e469-f178-4391-9917-b0574ada095d
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