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      A descriptive, cross-sectional study of medical student preferences for vodcast design, format and pedagogical approach

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          Abstract

          Background

          Vodcasts (video podcasts) are becoming increasingly popular in medical education. At A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU SOMA), vodcasts are an essential component of our blended learning environment, where year 2–4 students train in a contextual setting at community health centers across the U.S. Vodcasts are used far less frequently in our year 1 residential learning environment at the main campus in Arizona, but we are considering moving to significantly more interactive educational experiences with on-demand videos followed by in-class activities. The aim of this study was to determine stakeholder (i.e. medical student) preferences for vodcast design, format, and pedagogical strategies. The overall goal was to increase opportunities for students to learn with this modality.

          Methods

          An interactive Qualtrics™ survey was administered to three cohorts of medical students. The survey generated quantitative and open-ended response data that addressed principles of vodcast instructional design and learning. Responses to survey items were analyzed for statistical significance using the independent samples t-test for interval data, the chi-square test for categorical data, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordinal data, using the post-hoc Bonferroni procedure to determine the appropriate α level. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open- and axial-coding.

          Results

          The most highly valued vodcast attributes, considered essential by all three cohorts, were clear explanations, organization, conciseness, high-yield for medical board exams, and the ability to speed vodcasts up. The least helpful vodcast attributes for all three cohorts were music and objects moving on screen. The average preferred vodcast length for each cohort was 27–28 min. There were significant differences between the less experienced learners in the residential setting and the more mature learners in the blended learning environment regarding certain vodcast attribute preferences, format of included practice questions, explanations for preferred vodcast lengths, and reasons for not viewing vodcasts.

          Conclusions

          Overall, learner preferences were in line with non-interactive, screen-capture type vodcasts, which have lower demands on institutional cost and faculty production time than Flash™-type interactive vodcasts. Students in the blended learning environment were much more focused on vodcast features that decreased their time commitment, including a preference for noninteractive vodcasts. Given the increase in distance learning in medical education, our results should be of value to other medical programs.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12909-017-0926-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

          This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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            Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning

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              Applying the science of learning: evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction.

              During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in ways that help people learn. The author provides an overview of how the design of multimedia instruction can be informed by the science of learning and the science of instruction, which yields 10 principles of multimedia instructional design that are grounded in theory and based on evidence. Overall, the relationship between the science of learning and the science of instruction is reciprocal.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 0383 094X, GRID grid.251612.3, , A. T. Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, ; 5850 E. Still Circle, Mesa, AZ 85206 USA
                Contributors
                (480)248-8140 , rpettit@atsu.edu
                mbuickkinney@atsu.edu
                lmccoy@atsu.edu
                Journal
                BMC Med Educ
                BMC Med Educ
                BMC Medical Education
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6920
                19 May 2017
                19 May 2017
                2017
                : 17
                926
                10.1186/s12909-017-0926-z
                5438517
                28526022
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: not applicable
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

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