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      Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease

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          Abstract

          For many years, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death around the world. Often associated with CVD are comorbidities such as obesity, abnormal lipid profiles and insulin resistance. Insulin is a key hormone that functions as a regulator of cellular metabolism in many tissues in the human body. Insulin resistance is defined as a decrease in tissue response to insulin stimulation thus insulin resistance is characterized by defects in uptake and oxidation of glucose, a decrease in glycogen synthesis, and, to a lesser extent, the ability to suppress lipid oxidation. Literature widely suggests that free fatty acids are the predominant substrate used in the adult myocardium for ATP production, however, the cardiac metabolic network is highly flexible and can use other substrates, such as glucose, lactate or amino acids. During insulin resistance, several metabolic alterations induce the development of cardiovascular disease. For instance, insulin resistance can induce an imbalance in glucose metabolism that generates chronic hyperglycemia, which in turn triggers oxidative stress and causes an inflammatory response that leads to cell damage. Insulin resistance can also alter systemic lipid metabolism which then leads to the development of dyslipidemia and the well-known lipid triad: (1) high levels of plasma triglycerides, (2) low levels of high-density lipoprotein, and (3) the appearance of small dense low-density lipoproteins. This triad, along with endothelial dysfunction, which can also be induced by aberrant insulin signaling, contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Regarding the systemic consequences associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic cardiac alterations, it can be concluded that insulin resistance in the myocardium generates damage by at least three different mechanisms: (1) signal transduction alteration, (2) impaired regulation of substrate metabolism, and (3) altered delivery of substrates to the myocardium. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms associated with insulin resistance and the development of CVD. New therapies focused on decreasing insulin resistance may contribute to a decrease in both CVD and atherosclerotic plaque generation.

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          Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity.

          As the prevalence of obesity increases in the United States, concern over the association of body weight with excess mortality has also increased. To estimate deaths associated with underweight (body mass index [BMI] or =30) in the United States in 2000. We estimated relative risks of mortality associated with different levels of BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1975) and NHANES II (1976-1980), with follow-up through 1992, and from NHANES III (1988-1994), with follow-up through 2000. These relative risks were applied to the distribution of BMI and other covariates from NHANES 1999-2002 to estimate attributable fractions and number of excess deaths, adjusted for confounding factors and for effect modification by age. Number of excess deaths in 2000 associated with given BMI levels. Relative to the normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to or =30) was associated with 111,909 excess deaths (95% confidence interval [CI], 53,754-170,064) and underweight with 33,746 excess deaths (95% CI, 15,726-51,766). Overweight was not associated with excess mortality (-86,094 deaths; 95% CI, -161,223 to -10,966). The relative risks of mortality associated with obesity were lower in NHANES II and NHANES III than in NHANES I. Underweight and obesity, particularly higher levels of obesity, were associated with increased mortality relative to the normal weight category. The impact of obesity on mortality may have decreased over time, perhaps because of improvements in public health and medical care. These findings are consistent with the increases in life expectancy in the United States and the declining mortality rates from ischemic heart disease.
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            Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

            Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated hyperinsulinaemia can promote the development of a specific form of cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, this form of cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed nations, and the prevalence of this condition is rising in parallel with increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, female patients seem to be particularly susceptible to the development of this complication of metabolic disease. The diabetic cardiomyopathy observed in insulin- resistant or hyperinsulinaemic states is characterized by impaired myocardial insulin signalling, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impaired calcium homeostasis, abnormal coronary microcirculation, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and maladaptive immune responses. These pathophysiological changes result in oxidative stress, fibrosis, hypertrophy, cardiac diastolic dysfunction and eventually systolic heart failure. This Review highlights a surge in diabetic cardiomyopathy research, summarizes current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this condition and explores potential preventive and therapeutic strategies.
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              Meta-analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus.

              In persons with diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia (assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin level) is related to the development of microvascular disease; however, the relation of glycosylated hemoglobin to macrovascular disease is less clear. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies of the association between glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetic persons. Search of the MEDLINE database by using Medical Subject Heading search terms and key words related to glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Prospective cohort studies with data on glycosylated hemoglobin levels and incident cardiovascular disease. Relative risk estimates were derived or abstracted from each cohort study that met the inclusion criteria. Adjusted relative risk estimates for glycosylated hemoglobin (total glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1, or hemoglobin A1c levels) and cardiovascular disease events (coronary heart disease and stroke) were pooled by using random-effects models. Three studies involved persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 1688), and 10 studies involved persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 7435). The pooled relative risk for cardiovascular disease was 1.18; this represented a 1-percentage point increase in glycosylated hemoglobin level (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.26) in persons with type 2 diabetes. Results in persons with type 1 diabetes were similar but had a wider CI (pooled relative risk, 1.15 [CI, 0.92 to 1.43]). This review largely reflects the limitations of the literature. Important concerns were residual confounding, the possibility of publication bias, the small number of studies, and the heterogeneity of study results. Pending confirmation from large, ongoing clinical trials, this analysis shows that observational studies are consistent with limited clinical trial data and suggests that chronic hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in persons with diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                vormazabal@udec.cl
                s.nair@uq.edu.au
                S4337714@student.uq.edu.au
                caguayo@udec.cl
                +61 7 33465500 , c.salomongallo@uq.edu.au
                fzuniga@udec.cl
                Journal
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovascular Diabetology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2840
                31 August 2018
                31 August 2018
                2018
                : 17
                : 122
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9663, GRID grid.5380.e, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pharmacology Department, , University of Concepcion, ; Concepción, Chile
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Exosome Biology Laboratory, Centre for Clinical Diagnostics, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Faculty of Medicine + Biomedical Sciences, , The University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Australia
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9663, GRID grid.5380.e, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, , University of Concepcion, ; Concepción, Chile
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ochsner Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4474-0046
                Article
                762
                10.1186/s12933-018-0762-4
                6119242
                30170598
                a4729bcf-3cc8-41a1-b982-7142b041c7a0
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 22 May 2018
                : 20 August 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002850, Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 1170809
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Lions Medical Research Foundation
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000971, Diabetes Australia;
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                insulin resistance,hyperinsulinemia,metabolism,cardiovascular disease,dyslipidemia

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