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      Why does the world need another rotavirus vaccine?

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          Abstract

          A “Meeting on Upstream Rotavirus Vaccines and Emerging Vaccine Producers” was held at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland on March 28–30, 2006. The purpose was to discuss, evaluate, and weigh the importance of additional rotavirus vaccine candidates following the successful international licensure of rotavirus vaccines by two major pharmaceutical companies (GlaxoSmithKline and Merck) that had been in development for many years. Both licensed vaccines are composed of live rotaviruses that are delivered orally as have been all candidate rotavirus vaccines evaluated in humans. Each is built on the experience gained with previous candidates whose development had either been discontinued or, in the case of the previously licensed rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine (Rotashield), was withdrawn by its manufacturer after the discovery of a rare association with intussusception. Although which alternative candidate vaccines should be supported for development and where this should be done are controversial topics, there was general agreement expressed at the Geneva meeting that further development of alternative candidates is a high priority. This development will help insure that the most safe, effective and economic vaccines are available to children in Third World nations where the vast majority of the >600,000 deaths due to rotavirus occur each year. This review is intended to provide the history and present status of rotavirus vaccines as well as a perspective on the future development of candidate vaccines as a means of promulgating plans suggested at the Geneva meeting.

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          Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

          The safety and efficacy of an attenuated G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were tested in a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial. We studied 63,225 healthy infants from 11 Latin American countries and Finland who received two oral doses of either the HRV vaccine (31,673 infants) or placebo (31,552 infants) at approximately two months and four months of age. Severe gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. The severity of disease was graded with the use of the 20-point Vesikari scale. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in a subgroup of 20,169 infants (10,159 vaccinees and 10,010 placebo recipients). The efficacy of the vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was 85 percent (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo) and reached 100 percent against more severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Hospitalization for diarrhea of any cause was reduced by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 53 percent; P<0.001). During the 31-day window after each dose, six vaccine recipients and seven placebo recipients had definite intussusception (difference in risk, -0.32 per 10,000 infants; 95 percent confidence interval, -2.91 to 2.18; P=0.78). Two oral doses of the live attenuated G1P[8] HRV vaccine were highly efficacious in protecting infants against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, significantly reduced the rate of severe gastroenteritis from any cause, and were not associated with an increased risk of intussusception. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00139347 and NCT00263666.) Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine.

            Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide. We studied healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old who were randomly assigned to receive three oral doses of live pentavalent human-bovine (WC3 strain) reassortant rotavirus vaccine containing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P[8] or placebo at 4-to-10-week intervals in a blinded fashion. Active surveillance was used to identify subjects with serious adverse and other events. The 34,035 infants in the vaccine group and 34,003 in the placebo group were monitored for serious adverse events. Intussusception occurred in 12 vaccine recipients and 15 placebo recipients within one year after the first dose including six vaccine recipients and five placebo recipients within 42 days after any dose (relative risk, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 6.4). The vaccine reduced hospitalizations and emergency department visits related to G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis occurring 14 or more days after the third dose by 94.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 91.2 to 96.6 percent). In a nested substudy, efficacy against any G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis through the first full rotavirus season after vaccination was 74.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 66.8 to 79.9 percent); efficacy against severe gastroenteritis was 98.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 88.3 to 100 percent). The vaccine reduced clinic visits for G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis by 86.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 73.9 to 92.5 percent). This vaccine was efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, decreasing severe disease and health care contacts. The risk of intussusception was similar in vaccine and placebo recipients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090233.) Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Rotavirus and Severe Childhood Diarrhea

              Studies published between 1986 and 1999 indicated that rotavirus causes ≈22% (range 17%–28%) of childhood diarrhea hospitalizations. From 2000 to 2004, this proportion increased to 39% (range 29%–45%). Application of this proportion to the recent World Health Organization estimates of diarrhea-related childhood deaths gave an estimated 611,000 (range 454,000–705,000) rotavirus-related deaths.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                February 2008
                February 2008
                : 4
                : 1
                : 49-63
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati, OH, USA
                [2 ]Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Richard L Ward Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA Tel +1 513 636 7628 Fax +1 513 636 0950 Email dick.ward@ 123456cchmc.org
                Article
                2503666
                18728720
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                rotavirus immunity, candidate vaccines, rotavirus vaccines

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