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      Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 4 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 15 , 9 , 4 , 12 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 15 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 18 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 17 , 15 , 30 , 31

      Atmospheric chemistry and physics

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          Abstract

          Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO 3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO 3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO 3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO 3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO 3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models.

          This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO 3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO 3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

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          A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions

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            Evolution of organic aerosols in the atmosphere.

            Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework describing the atmospheric evolution of OA that is constrained by high-time-resolution measurements of its composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), with concentrations comparable to those of sulfate aerosol throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in both the atmosphere and laboratory: It can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.
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              The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [2 ]School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [3 ]NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA
                [4 ]Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
                [5 ]National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
                [6 ]Department of Atmospheric Sciences, RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
                [7 ]Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
                [8 ]Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Division of Atmospheric Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
                [9 ]Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
                [10 ]Center for Atmospheric Particle Studies, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
                [11 ]Department of Chemistry, Reed College, Portland, OR, USA
                [12 ]Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung: Troposphäre (IEK-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
                [13 ]Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
                [14 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
                [15 ]Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
                [16 ]Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
                [17 ]Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                [18 ]National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                [19 ]Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
                [20 ]Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, NJ, USA
                [21 ]Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [22 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
                [23 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
                [24 ]Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS, Universities of Paris-Est Créteil and ì Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Créteil, France
                [25 ]Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
                [26 ]Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel
                [27 ]Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
                [28 ]Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
                [29 ]Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [30 ]Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
                [31 ]Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Nga Lee Ng ( ng@ 123456chbe.gatech.edu ) and Steven S. Brown ( steven.s.brown@ 123456noaa.gov )
                [a]

                now at: Geophysical Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA

                Journal
                101214388
                38670
                Atmos Chem Phys
                Atmos Chem Phys
                Atmospheric chemistry and physics
                1680-7316
                1680-7324
                25 July 2018
                2017
                22 August 2018
                : 17
                : 3
                : 2103-2162
                6104845 10.5194/acp-17-2103-2017 EPAPA982684

                CC Attribution 3.0 License.

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