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      Analysis of Cyp51 protein sequences shows 4 major Cyp51 gene family groups across fungi

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          Abstract

          Azole drugs target fungal sterol biosynthesis and are used to treat millions of human fungal infections each year. Resistance to azole drugs has emerged in multiple fungal pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The most well-studied resistance mechanism in A. fumigatus arises from missense mutations in the coding sequence combined with a tandem repeat in the promoter of cyp51A, which encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme in the fungal sterol biosynthesis pathway. Filamentous members of Ascomycota such as A. fumigatus have either 1 or 2 of 3 Cyp51 paralogs (Cyp51A, Cyp51B, and Cyp51C). Most previous research in A. fumigatus has focused on Cyp51A due to its role in azole resistance. We used the A. fumigatus Cyp51A protein sequence as the query in database searches to identify Cyp51 proteins across fungi. We found 435 Cyp51 proteins in 295 species spanning from early-diverging fungi (Blastocladiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Zoopagomycota, and Mucormycota) to late-diverging fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). We found these sequences formed 4 major Cyp51 groups: Cyp51, Cyp51A, Cyp51B, and Cyp51C. Surprisingly, we found all filamentous Ascomycota had a Cyp51B paralog, while only 50% had a Cyp51A paralog. We created maximum likelihood trees to investigate the evolution of Cyp51 in fungi. Our results suggest Cyp51 is present in all fungi with 3 paralogs emerging in Pezizomycotina, including Cyp51C which appears to have diverged from the progenitor of the Cyp51A and Cyp51B groups.

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            Basic local alignment search tool.

            A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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              RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

              Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                G3 (Bethesda)
                Genetics
                g3journal
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Oxford University Press
                2160-1836
                November 2022
                21 September 2022
                21 September 2022
                : 12
                : 11
                : jkac249
                Affiliations
                Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30606, USA
                Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30606, USA
                Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30606, USA
                Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30606, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606, USA. Email: mmomany@ 123456uga.edu
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8727-1262
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7064-6021
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7110-063X
                Article
                jkac249
                10.1093/g3journal/jkac249
                9635630
                36130263
                ab18c091-1b11-4007-aad0-6c4a65b01452
                © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 18 May 2022
                : 07 September 2022
                : 27 September 2022
                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funded by: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DOI 10.13039/100000030;
                Award ID: 200-2017-96199
                Funded by: United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture;
                Categories
                Investigation
                Genetics/132
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01180
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01140
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00010
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00960

                Genetics
                cyp51,azole resistance,cyp51a,cyp51b,cyp51c
                Genetics
                cyp51, azole resistance, cyp51a, cyp51b, cyp51c

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