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      New insights into the multidimensional concept of macrophage ontogeny, activation and function.

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          Abstract

          Macrophages have protective roles in immunity to pathogens, tissue development, homeostasis and repair following damage. Maladaptive immunity and inflammation provoke changes in macrophage function that are causative of disease. Despite a historical wealth of knowledge about macrophages, recent advances have revealed unknown aspects of their development and function. Following development, macrophages are activated by diverse signals. Such tissue microenvironmental signals together with epigenetic changes influence macrophage development, activation and functional diversity, with consequences in disease and homeostasis. We discuss here how recent discoveries in these areas have led to a multidimensional concept of macrophage ontogeny, activation and function. In connection with this, we also discuss how technical advances facilitate a new roadmap for the isolation and analysis of macrophages at high resolution.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nat. Immunol.
          Nature immunology
          1529-2916
          1529-2908
          Jan 2016
          : 17
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore.
          [2 ] Genomics &Immunoregulation, LIMES (Life &Medical Sciences) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
          [3 ] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn, Germany.
          [4 ] Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
          [5 ] Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
          [6 ] Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
          [7 ] Immunología de Trasplantes, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
          Article
          ni.3324
          10.1038/ni.3324
          26681460
          adea59b6-0a3f-45fd-96cc-46fbba54f44a

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