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      Siphonaptera associated with small mammals (Didelphimorphia, Chiroptera, and Rodentia) from northwestern Argentina

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          Abstract

          Abstract: Northwestern Argentina (NOA) is one of the least studied areas in Argentina with respect to ectoparasites of the order Siphonaptera; previous investigations, until this study, were scarce and specific. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of siphonaptera that parasitize small mammals from the NOA, emphasizing in their systematics and distribution. Specimens of fleas collected in several localities of NOA, and stored in the “Annexes” of the Colección Mamíferos Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina, were studied. Fleas were manually removed from the host pelage, fixed in alcohol 70 % and prepared following conventional techniques for later observation under microscope. For specimen identification, the original descriptions of species and subspecies were reviewed and compared with specimens stored in systematic collections. Nine families, 22 genera, 53 species, and eight subspecies were recorded. A new family, a new genus, and three new species are recorded for the first time in Argentina; five species are new for NOA and nine are new to science. The distribution of 11 species and two subspecies are extended in the NOA, new records are added to different provinces and new flea-hosts associations are reported. The greatest diversity of fleas in the Yungas is the reflection of one of the areas with the highest biodiversity in the Neotropical region, such as the Yungas forests, which also includes mammals, as sigmodontine rodents and bats among them. The similarity analysis among eco-regions showed a major faunistic congruence between the Yungas and the Dry Chaco. The greatest differentiation was given by the High Andes and Puna compared with the other eco-regions, probably because these areas are the least surveyed and with the lowest richness and abundance of small mammal species. From the total of 82 new flea-host associations, 81 belong to sigmodontine rodent hosts and one to a marsupial.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen: El Noroeste Argentino (NOA) representa una de las áreas de Argentina menos estudiada en lo que respecta a ectoparásitos del orden Siphonaptera; las investigaciones, hasta este estudio, eran escasas y puntuales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue contribuir al conocimiento de la diversidad de sifonápteros que parasitan micromamíferos del NOA, con énfasis en la sistemática y distribución. Se estudiaron ejemplares de sifonápteros procedentes de varias localidades del NOA depositados en los “anexos” de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina. Las pulgas fueron recolectadas manualmente del pelaje de los hospedadores, fijadas en alcohol 70 % y preparadas siguiendo las técnicas convencionales para su posterior observación al microscopio óptico. Para la identificación de los ejemplares se revisaron las descripciones originales de especies y subespecies y se compararon los ejemplares con aquellos depositados en colecciones de referencia. Se registraron nueve familias, 22 géneros, 53 especies y ocho subespecies. Una nueva familia, un nuevo género y tres nuevas especies se citan por primera vez para Argentina, cinco especies son nuevas para el noroeste y nueve son nuevas especies para la ciencia. Se extiende la distribución de 11 especies y dos subespecies en el NOA, se suman nuevos registros para las diferentes provincias y se reportan nuevas asociaciones sifonáptero-hospedador. La mayor diversidad de pulgas en la eco-región de Yungas es un reflejo de una de las áreas de más alta biodiversidad en la región Neotropical como son las selvas de Yungas, incluyendo a los mamíferos y, entre ellos, a los roedores sigmodontinos y los murciélagos. El análisis del grado de afinidad entre eco-regiones mostró una mayor congruencia faunística entre las Yungas y el Chaco Seco. La mayor diferenciación estuvo dada por los Altos Andes y la Puna con respecto al resto, probablemente porque son dos de las áreas menos muestreadas y con menor riqueza y abundancia de especies de micromamíferos. Del total de 82 nuevas asociaciones sifonáptero-hospedador, 81 poseen como hospedadores a los roedores sigmodontinos, y una asociación está constituida por un marsupial.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation.

          Habitat loss has pervasive and disruptive impacts on biodiversity in habitat remnants. The magnitude of the ecological impacts of habitat loss can be exacerbated by the spatial arrangement -- or fragmentation -- of remaining habitat. Fragmentation per se is a landscape-level phenomenon in which species that survive in habitat remnants are confronted with a modified environment of reduced area, increased isolation and novel ecological boundaries. The implications of this for individual organisms are many and varied, because species with differing life history strategies are differentially affected by habitat fragmentation. Here, we review the extensive literature on species responses to habitat fragmentation, and detail the numerous ways in which confounding factors have either masked the detection, or prevented the manifestation, of predicted fragmentation effects. Large numbers of empirical studies continue to document changes in species richness with decreasing habitat area, with positive, negative and no relationships regularly reported. The debate surrounding such widely contrasting results is beginning to be resolved by findings that the expected positive species-area relationship can be masked by matrix-derived spatial subsidies of resources to fragment-dwelling species and by the invasion of matrix-dwelling species into habitat edges. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of how species interactions are altered at habitat edges as a result of these changes. Interestingly, changes in biotic and abiotic parameters at edges also make ecological processes more variable than in habitat interiors. Individuals are more likely to encounter habitat edges in fragments with convoluted shapes, leading to increased turnover and variability in population size than in fragments that are compact in shape. Habitat isolation in both space and time disrupts species distribution patterns, with consequent effects on metapopulation dynamics and the genetic structure of fragment-dwelling populations. Again, the matrix habitat is a strong determinant of fragmentation effects within remnants because of its role in regulating dispersal and dispersal-related mortality, the provision of spatial subsidies and the potential mediation of edge-related microclimatic gradients. We show that confounding factors can mask many fragmentation effects. For instance, there are multiple ways in which species traits like trophic level, dispersal ability and degree of habitat specialisation influence species-level responses. The temporal scale of investigation may have a strong influence on the results of a study, with short-term crowding effects eventually giving way to long-term extinction debts. Moreover, many fragmentation effects like changes in genetic, morphological or behavioural traits of species require time to appear. By contrast, synergistic interactions of fragmentation with climate change, human-altered disturbance regimes, species interactions and other drivers of population decline may magnify the impacts of fragmentation. To conclude, we emphasise that anthropogenic fragmentation is a recent phenomenon in evolutionary time and suggest that the final, long-term impacts of habitat fragmentation may not yet have shown themselves.
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            Phylogenetic Relationships and Classification of Didelphid Marsupials, an Extant Radiation of New World Metatherian Mammals

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              A molecular phylogeny of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera): origins and host associations

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                therya
                Therya
                Therya
                Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C. (La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico )
                2007-3364
                2019
                : 10
                : 3
                : 279-308
                Affiliations
                San Miguel de Tucumán Tucumán orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Tucumán orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo Argentina mflopezberri@ 123456hotmail.com
                Tucumán Buenos Aires orgnameConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Argentina
                Tucumán orgnameFundación Miguel Lillo Argentina
                Article
                S2007-33642019000300279 S2007-3364(19)01000300279
                10.12933/therya-19-885

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 130, Pages: 30
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                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Articles

                host, new records, taxonomic, fleas, Argentina, eco-regions

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