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      Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior

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          Abstract

          For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.

          Electronic Supplementary Material

          Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s11684-017-0605-9 and is accessible for authorized users.

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          Most cited references 101

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              Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China.

              Heightened surveillance of acute febrile illness in China since 2009 has led to the identification of a severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with an unknown cause. Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been suggested as a cause, but the pathogen has not been detected in most patients on laboratory testing. We obtained blood samples from patients with the case definition of SFTS in six provinces in China. The blood samples were used to isolate the causal pathogen by inoculation of cell culture and for detection of viral RNA on polymerase-chain-reaction assay. The pathogen was characterized on electron microscopy and nucleic acid sequencing. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and neutralization testing to analyze the level of virus-specific antibody in patients' serum samples. We isolated a novel virus, designated SFTS bunyavirus, from patients who presented with fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and multiorgan dysfunction. RNA sequence analysis revealed that the virus was a newly identified member of the genus phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Electron-microscopical examination revealed virions with the morphologic characteristics of a bunyavirus. The presence of the virus was confirmed in 171 patients with SFTS from six provinces by detection of viral RNA, specific antibodies to the virus in blood, or both. Serologic assays showed a virus-specific immune response in all 35 pairs of serum samples collected from patients during the acute and convalescent phases of the illness. A novel phlebovirus was identified in patients with a life-threatening illness associated with fever and thrombocytopenia in China. (Funded by the China Mega-Project for Infectious Diseases and others.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                xujianguo@icdc.cn
                Journal
                Front Med
                Front Med
                Frontiers of Medicine
                Higher Education Press (Beijing )
                2095-0217
                2095-0225
                24 January 2018
                2018
                : 12
                : 1
                : 3-22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8803 2373, GRID grid.198530.6, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, , Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Beijing, 102206 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8803 2373, GRID grid.198530.6, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, ; Beijing, 102206 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1803 4911, GRID grid.410740.6, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, ; Beijing, 100071 China
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000119573309, GRID grid.9227.e, The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Beijing, 100094 China
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1789 9964, GRID grid.20513.35, State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, , Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, ; Beijing, 100094 China
                Article
                605
                10.1007/s11684-017-0605-9
                7089168
                29368266
                © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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                © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

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