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      Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts

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          Abstract

          There are concerns about using synthetic phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as food additives because of the reported negative effects on human health. Thus, a replacement of these synthetics by antioxidant extractions from various foods has been proposed. More than 8000 different phenolic compounds have been characterized; fruits and vegetables are the prime sources of natural antioxidants. In order to extract, measure, and identify bioactive compounds from a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, researchers use multiple techniques and methods. This review includes a brief description of a wide range of different assays. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties of phenolic natural products from fruits and vegetables are also discussed.

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          Most cited references127

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          Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

          Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
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            Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

            Approximately 200 studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary are reviewed. A statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies in which results were expressed in terms of relative risk. For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one-fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors. For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances. Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant. Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies). For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis. It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.
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              Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.

              Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                22 September 2017
                December 2017
                : 6
                : 4
                : 42
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Al-Basrah, Basrah 61004, Iraq
                [2 ]Department of Plant, Soil and Agricultural Systems, Plant Biotechnology and Genome Core-Facility, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA; naoufal.lakhssassi@ 123456siu.edu (N.L.); baharlouei@ 123456siu.edu (A.B.); dwatson@ 123456siu.edu (D.G.W.); ga4082@ 123456siu.edu (D.A.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ammaragr@ 123456siu.edu ; Tel.: +964-773-564-0090
                Article
                plants-06-00042
                10.3390/plants6040042
                5750618
                28937585
                b0995472-fd59-48d1-8a67-9a6e07ff8a11
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 19 July 2017
                : 19 September 2017
                Categories
                Review

                antimicrobial,antioxidants,medicinal plants,bht
                antimicrobial, antioxidants, medicinal plants, bht

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