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      Vectorcardiography Findings Are Associated with Recurrent Ventricular Arrhythmias and Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure Treated with Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Device

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          Background: There is a need for refined risk stratification of sudden cardiac death and prediction of ventricular arrhythmias to correctly identify patients who are expected to benefit the most from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Methods: We conducted a registry-based retrospective observational study on patients with either ischemic (ICMP) or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICMP) treated with ICD between 2002 and 2013 at a tertiary referral center. We evaluated 3 vectorcardiography (VCG) indices; spatial QRS-T angle, QRS vector magnitude (QRSvm), and T-wave vector magnitude (Twvm), and their association with all-cause mortality and ventricular arrhythmias. The VCG indices were automatically computed from resting 12-lead electrocardiograms before ICD implantation. Results: 178 patients were included in the study; 53.4% had ICMP, 79.2% were male, and mean ejection fraction was 27.4%. During the follow-up (median 89 months), 40 patients (23%) died; 31% had appropriate ICD therapy. In multivariate analysis with dichotomized variables, QRS-T angle >152° and Twvm <0.38 mV were significantly associated with increased mortality: HR 2.64 (95% CI 1.14–6.12, p = 0.02) and HR 5.30 (95% CI 2.31–12.11, p < 0.001), respectively. QRSvm <1.54 mV was borderline significant with mortality outcome ( p = 0.10). The composite score of all 3 VCG indices, a score of 3, conferred an increased risk of mortality (including heart failure mortality) in multivariate analysis: HR 13.80 (95% CI 3.44–55.39, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The spatial QRS-T angle and Twvm are emerging VCG indices which are independently associated with mortality in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction due to ICMP or NICMP. Using a composite score of all 3 vector indices, a maximum score was associated with poor long-term survival.

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          Most cited references 32

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          A standardized definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy for use in clinical research.

          We sought to evaluate the association between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and survival in patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF) and to create the most prognostically powerful clinical definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy. An ischemic etiology of HF is known to be a predictor of adverse outcome; however, there is no uniform definition for ischemic cardiomyopathy. We assessed the clinical history and coronary anatomy of patients with symptomatic HF and ejection fraction < or = 40% undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography between 1986 and 1999 (n = 1,921). Five classification schemes were tested to identify the most prognostically powerful method for defining the extent of CAD and to develop the best definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy for prognostic purposes. A more extensive CAD was independently associated with shorter survival. When the various classification schemes were compared, a modified number-of-diseased-vessels classification, in which patients with single-vessel disease and no prior history of revascularization or myocardial infarction (MI) were classified as nonischemic, provided the most prognostic power. A definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy that incorporated this definition had more prognostic power than the traditional definition. Angiographically diagnosed ischemic HF is associated with shorter survival than nonischemic HF. A more extensive CAD is independently associated with shorter survival, and patients with single-vessel disease and no history of MI or revascularization should be classified as nonischemic for prognostic purposes. Standardization of the definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy will be useful in the conduct and interpretation of clinical research in HF.
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            2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Executive Summary

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              Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction.

              Patients with reduced left ventricular function after myocardial infarction are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an implantable defibrillator on survival in such patients. Over the course of four years, we enrolled 1232 patients with a prior myocardial infarction and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.30 or less. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive an implantable defibrillator (742 patients) or conventional medical therapy (490 patients). Invasive electrophysiological testing for risk stratification was not required. Death from any cause was the end point. The clinical characteristics at base line and the prevalence of medication use at the time of the last follow-up visit were similar in the two treatment groups. During an average follow-up of 20 months, the mortality rates were 19.8 percent in the conventional-therapy group and 14.2 percent in the defibrillator group. The hazard ratio for the risk of death from any cause in the defibrillator group as compared with the conventional-therapy group was 0.69 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.93; P=0.016). The effect of defibrillator therapy on survival was similar in subgroup analyses stratified according to age, sex, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, and the QRS interval. In patients with a prior myocardial infarction and advanced left ventricular dysfunction, prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator improves survival and should be considered as a recommended therapy.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                21 September 2020
                : 145
                : 12
                : 784-794
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Arrhythmia Clinic, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                bDepartment of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Minnesota/Masonic Children’s Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
                cDepartment of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Uzma Chaudhry, Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Arrhythmia Clinic, Skåne University Hospital, SE–221 00 Lund (Sweden),
                509766 Cardiology 2020;145:784–794
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 11
                Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia: Research Article


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