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      A Review on Antidiabetic Activity of Centaurea spp.: A New Approach for Developing Herbal Remedies

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a long-life metabolic disorder, characterized by high blood glucose levels. The hyperglycemic condition generally leads to irreversible nerve injury and vascular damage. Among different types of diabetes, type 2 is more common and has spread all over the world. Although various therapeutic approaches have been developed to control type 2 DM, regulating blood glucose levels has still remained a controversial challenge for patients. Also, most prescription drugs cause different side effects, such as gastrointestinal disorders. Thus, developing novel and efficient antidiabetic agents possessing fewer adverse effects is in high demand.

          Method

          The literature was comprehensively surveyed via search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus using appropriate keywords.

          Results

          Medicinal plants, both extracts and isolated active components, have played a significant role in controlling the blood glucose levels. Good-to-excellent results documented in the literature have made them a precious origin for developing and designing drugs and supplements against DM. Centaurea spp. have been traditionally used for controlling high blood glucose levels. Also, the antidiabetic properties of different species of Centaurea have been confirmed in recent studies through in vitro assays as well as in vivo experiments.

          Conclusion

          Potent results encouraged us to review their efficacy to open a new horizon for development of herbal antidiabetic agents.

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          Most cited references268

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          Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030

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            Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial.

            The worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming a major health concern. We aimed to assess the effect of acarbose in preventing or delaying conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. In a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomised trial, we randomly allocated patients with impaired glucose tolerance to 100 mg acarbose or placebo three times daily. The primary endpoint was development of diabetes on the basis of a yearly oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Analyses were by intention to treat. We randomly allocated 714 patients with impaired glucose tolerance to acarbose and 715 to placebo. We excluded 61 (4%) patients because they did not have impaired glucose tolerance or had no postrandomisation data. 211 (31%) of 682 patients in the acarbose group and 130 (19%) of 686 on placebo discontinued treatment early. 221 (32%) patients randomised to acarbose and 285 (42%) randomised to placebo developed diabetes (relative hazard 0.75 [95% CI 0.63-0.90]; p=0.0015). Furthermore, acarbose significantly increased reversion of impaired glucose tolerance to normal glucose tolerance (p<0.0001). At the end of the study, treatment with placebo for 3 months was associated with an increase in conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes. The most frequent side-effects to acarbose treatment were flatulence and diarrhoea. Acarbose could be used, either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.
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              Diabetic Neuropathies: Update on Definitions, Diagnostic Criteria, Estimation of Severity, and Treatments

              Preceding the joint meeting of the 19th annual Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (NEURODIAB) and the 8th International Symposium on Diabetic Neuropathy in Toronto, Canada, 13–18 October 2009, expert panels were convened to provide updates on classification, definitions, diagnostic criteria, and treatments of diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPNs), autonomic neuropathy, painful DPNs, and structural alterations in DPNs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2021
                5 July 2021
                5 July 2021
                : 2021
                : 5587938
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                2Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                3Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                4Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                5Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Francesca Mancianti

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6999-0311
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8294-1215
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9046-8058
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4053-6331
                Article
                10.1155/2021/5587938
                8275385
                34285703
                b1ac638e-2d92-4916-a8a4-dfd6a8c2fe3c
                Copyright © 2021 Samaneh Fattaheian-Dehkordi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 18 February 2021
                : 19 May 2021
                : 14 June 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                Categories
                Review Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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