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      Where are all the self-employed women? Push and pull factors influencing female labor market decisions

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          Most cited references 45

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          Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self‐Employment

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            The Effect of Children on Women's Wages

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              Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

              Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Small Business Economics
                Small Bus Econ
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0921-898X
                1573-0913
                March 2016
                January 16 2016
                March 2016
                : 46
                : 3
                : 365-390
                Article
                10.1007/s11187-015-9697-2
                © 2016

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