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      Antidepressant effect of taurine in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rats

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          Abstract

          Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model. Taurine was found to inhibit the decrease of sucrose consumption and prevent the deficiency of spatial memory and anxiety in rats exposed to CUMS, suggesting a preventive effect of taurine on depression-like behavior. Furthermore, the decreased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, noradrenaline; the increased levels of glutamate, corticosterone; and the decreased expressions of fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and brain derived neurotrophic factor in depressive rats were hindered by taurine pre-administration. However, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β levels were not significantly changed by taurine. The results demonstrated that the anti-depressive effect of taurine may be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the promotion of neurogenesis, neuronal survival and growth in the hippocampus.

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          Most cited references59

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          The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target.

          Crosstalk between inflammatory pathways and neurocircuits in the brain can lead to behavioural responses, such as avoidance and alarm, that are likely to have provided early humans with an evolutionary advantage in their interactions with pathogens and predators. However, in modern times, such interactions between inflammation and the brain appear to drive the development of depression and may contribute to non-responsiveness to current antidepressant therapies. Recent data have elucidated the mechanisms by which the innate and adaptive immune systems interact with neurotransmitters and neurocircuits to influence the risk for depression. Here, we detail our current understanding of these pathways and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the immune system to treat depression.
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            Altered gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and receptor tyrosine kinase B in postmortem brain of suicide subjects.

            Suicide is a major public health concern. Although authors of many studies have examined the neurobiological aspects of suicide, the molecular mechanisms associated with suicidal behavior remain unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most important neurotrophins, after binding with and activating receptor tyrosine kinase B (trk B), is directly involved in many physiological functions in the brain, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression of BDNF and/or trk B isoforms was altered in postmortem brain in subjects who commit suicide (hereafter referred to as suicide subjects) and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed in prefrontal cortex in Brodmann area 9 and hippocampus obtained in 27 suicide subjects and 21 nonpsychiatric control subjects. Levels of messenger RNA and protein levels of BDNF and trk B were determined with competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot technique, respectively. The level of neuron-specific enolase messenger RNA as a neuronal marker was also determined in these brain areas. Messenger RNA levels of BDNF and trk B were significantly reduced, independently and as a ratio to neuron-specific enolase, in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in suicide subjects, as compared with those in control subjects. These reductions were associated with significant decreases in the protein levels of BDNF and of full-length trk B but not trk B's truncated isoform. These changes were present in all suicide subjects regardless of psychiatric diagnosis and were unrelated to postmortem interval, age, sex, or pH of the brain. Given the importance of BDNF in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF and trk B in postmortem brain in suicide subjects suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior.
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              Stress and the developing adolescent brain.

              Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes coincident with adolescence. An emerging line of research has indicated that stressors experienced during this crucial developmental stage may affect the trajectory of this neural maturation and contribute to the increase in psychological morbidities, such as anxiety and depression, often observed during adolescence. In this review, we discuss the short- and long-term effects of periadolescent stress exposure on the structure and function of the brain. More specifically, we examine how stress at prepubertal and early adolescent stages of development affects the morphological plasticity of limbic and cortical brain regions, as well as the enduring effects of adolescent stress exposure on these brain regions in adulthood. We suggest that, due to a number of converging factors during this period of maturation, the adolescent brain may be particularly sensitive to stress-induced neurobehavioral dysfunctions with important consequences on an individual's immediate and long-term health and well-being. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hujianmin59@163.com
                syauyjc@126.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                10 July 2017
                10 July 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 4989
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0000 9886 8131, GRID grid.412557.0, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, , College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, ; Shenyang, Liaoning 110866 P.R. China
                Article
                5051
                10.1038/s41598-017-05051-3
                5504064
                28694433
                b94f0784-67a5-43db-8eef-d7c1d4221c28
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 18 January 2017
                : 30 May 2017
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