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      One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?

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          Abstract

          Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions. Concurrently, infectious disease has been identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. A synthesis published in 2000 showed common anthropogenic drivers of disease threats to biodiversity and human health, including encroachment and destruction of wildlife habitat and the human-assisted spread of pathogens. Almost two decades later, the situation has not changed and, despite improved knowledge of the underlying causes, little has been done at the policy level to address these threats. For the sake of public health and wellbeing, human-kind needs to work better to conserve nature and preserve the ecosystem services, including disease regulation, that biodiversity provides while also understanding and mitigating activities which lead to disease emergence. We consider that holistic, One Health approaches to the management and mitigation of the risks of emerging infectious diseases have the greatest chance of success.

          This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’.

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          Most cited references125

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          Global trends in emerging infectious diseases

          The next new disease Emerging infectious diseases are a major threat to health: AIDS, SARS, drug-resistant bacteria and Ebola virus are among the more recent examples. By identifying emerging disease 'hotspots', the thinking goes, it should be possible to spot health risks at an early stage and prepare containment strategies. An analysis of over 300 examples of disease emerging between 1940 and 2004 suggests that these hotspots can be accurately mapped based on socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors. The data show that the surveillance effort, and much current research spending, is concentrated in developed economies, yet the risk maps point to developing countries as the more likely source of new diseases. Supplementary information The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nature06536) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-- Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health

            P. Daszak (2000)
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              Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor

              The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history 1 . An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 2 suggests that this group of viruses remains a major threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested as the natural reservoirs of both viruses 3–5 , attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa 5–8 , but none are considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins (S) to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) 9,10 . Here, we report whole genome sequences of two novel bat CoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China; RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat CoVs, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RDB) of the S protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat fecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses the ACE2s from human, civet and Chinese horseshoe bat for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
                Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci
                RSTB
                royptb
                Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                0962-8436
                1471-2970
                19 July 2017
                5 June 2017
                5 June 2017
                : 372
                : 1725 , Theme issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’ compiled and edited by Andrew Cunningham, Ian Scoones and James Wood
                : 20160167
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London , Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK
                [2 ]Ecohealth Alliance , 460 West 34th Street, New York, NY 10001, USA
                [3 ]Department of Veterinary Medicine, Disease Dynamics Unit, University of Cambridge , Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
                Author notes
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to the study.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3543-6504
                Article
                rstb20160167
                10.1098/rstb.2016.0167
                5468692
                28584175
                baa6bc03-3591-498d-a2e5-55c8193d6b9e
                © 2017 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 3 April 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: United States Agency for International Development, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000200;
                Award ID: GHN-A-OO-09-00010-00
                Funded by: Wolfson Foundation, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001320;
                Funded by: Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation;
                Award ID: NE/J001570/1
                Funded by: Royal Society, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000288;
                Funded by: European Commission Seventh Framework Programme;
                Award ID: Project Number 278976
                Funded by: Alborada Trust, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008288;
                Categories
                1001
                60
                69
                87
                Articles
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                July 19, 2017

                Philosophy of science
                one health,ecosystem services,emerging infectious disease,zoonoses,wildlife disease,policy

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