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      Dynamic RNA acetylation revealed by quantitative cross-evolutionary mapping

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          The Xist lncRNA exploits three-dimensional genome architecture to spread across the X chromosome.

          Many large noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate chromatin, but the mechanisms by which they localize to genomic targets remain unexplored. We investigated the localization mechanisms of the Xist lncRNA during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), a paradigm of lncRNA-mediated chromatin regulation. During the maintenance of XCI, Xist binds broadly across the X chromosome. During initiation of XCI, Xist initially transfers to distal regions across the X chromosome that are not defined by specific sequences. Instead, Xist identifies these regions by exploiting the three-dimensional conformation of the X chromosome. Xist requires its silencing domain to spread across actively transcribed regions and thereby access the entire chromosome. These findings suggest a model in which Xist coats the X chromosome by searching in three dimensions, modifying chromosome structure, and spreading to newly accessible locations.
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            Acetylation of Cytidine in mRNA Promotes Translation Efficiency

            Generation of the “epitranscriptome” through post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modification embeds a layer of regulatory complexity into RNA structure and function. Here we describe N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) as an mRNA modification that is catalyzed by the acetyltransferase NAT10. Transcriptome-wide mapping of ac4C revealed discretely acetylated regions that were enriched within coding sequences. Ablation of NAT10 reduced ac4C detection at the mapped mRNA sites and was globally associated with target mRNA down-regulation. Analysis of mRNA half-lives revealed a NAT10-dependent increase in stability in the cohort of acetylated mRNAs. mRNA acetylation was further demonstrated to enhance substrate translation in vitro and in vivo . Codon content analysis within ac4C peaks uncovered a biased representation of cytidine within wobble sites that was empirically determined to influence mRNA decoding efficiency. These findings expand the repertoire of mRNA modifications to include an acetylated residue and establish a role for ac4C in the regulation of mRNA translation. Post-transcriptional acetylation of cytidines in mammalian mRNAs enhances RNA stability and translation.
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              Accurate determination of local defocus and specimen tilt in electron microscopy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                June 17 2020
                Article
                10.1038/s41586-020-2418-2
                32555463
                bbc7b3ec-a2be-4fcb-95de-db5e8f1aa3d7
                © 2020

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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