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      Panic Disorder Comorbidity with Medical Conditions and Treatment Implications

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      Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Panic disorder (PD) is unique among the anxiety disorders in that panic symptoms are primarily of a physical nature. Consequently, comorbidity with medical illness is significant. This review examines the association between PD and medical illness. We identify shared pathophysiological and psychological correlates and illustrate how physiological activation in panic sufferers underlies their symptom experience in the context of the fight-or-flight response and beyond a situation-specific response pattern. We then review evidence for bodily symptom perception accuracy in PD. Prevalence of comorbidity for PD and medical illness is presented, with a focus on respiratory and cardiovascular illness, irritable bowel syndrome, and diabetes, followed by an outline for potential pathways of a bidirectional association. We conclude by illustrating commonalities in mediating mechanistic pathways and moderating risk factors across medical illnesses, and we discuss implications for diagnosis and treatment of both types of conditions.

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          Is Open Access

          Interoceptive inference, emotion, and the embodied self.

           Anil K. Seth (2013)
          The concept of the brain as a prediction machine has enjoyed a resurgence in the context of the Bayesian brain and predictive coding approaches within cognitive science. To date, this perspective has been applied primarily to exteroceptive perception (e.g., vision, audition), and action. Here, I describe a predictive, inferential perspective on interoception: 'interoceptive inference' conceives of subjective feeling states (emotions) as arising from actively-inferred generative (predictive) models of the causes of interoceptive afferents. The model generalizes 'appraisal' theories that view emotions as emerging from cognitive evaluations of physiological changes, and it sheds new light on the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the experience of body ownership and conscious selfhood in health and in neuropsychiatric illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease.

            Why do we get the stress-related diseases we do? Why do some people have flare ups of autoimmune disease, whereas others suffer from melancholic depression during a stressful period in their life? In the present review possible explanations will be given by using different levels of analysis. First, we explain in evolutionary terms why different organisms adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with stress. It has become clear that natural selection maintains a balance of different traits preserving genes for high aggression (Hawks) and low aggression (Doves) within a population. The existence of these personality types (Hawks-Doves) is widespread in the animal kingdom, not only between males and females but also within the same gender across species. Second, proximate (causal) explanations are given for the different stress responses and how they work. Hawks and Doves differ in underlying physiology and these differences are associated with their respective behavioral strategies; for example, bold Hawks preferentially adopt the fight-flight response when establishing a new territory or defending an existing territory, while cautious Doves show the freeze-hide response to adapt to threats in their environment. Thus, adaptive processes that actively maintain stability through change (allostasis) depend on the personality type and the associated stress responses. Third, we describe how the expression of the various stress responses can result in specific benefits to the organism. Fourth, we discuss how the benefits of allostasis and the costs of adaptation (allostatic load) lead to different trade-offs in health and disease, thereby reinforcing a Darwinian concept of stress. Collectively, this provides some explanation of why individuals may differ in their vulnerability to different stress-related diseases and how this relates to the range of personality types, especially aggressive Hawks and non-aggressive Doves in a population. A conceptual framework is presented showing that Hawks, due to inefficient management of mediators of allostasis, are more likely to be violent, to develop impulse control disorders, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, atypical depression, chronic fatigue states and inflammation. In contrast, Doves, due to the greater release of mediators of allostasis (surplus), are more susceptible to anxiety disorders, metabolic syndromes, melancholic depression, psychotic states and infection.
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              Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease.

              There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors' contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress "causes" the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients' suffering and enhance their quality of life.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
                Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol.
                Annual Reviews
                1548-5943
                1548-5951
                May 08 2017
                May 08 2017
                : 13
                : 1
                : 209-240
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093044
                28375724
                © 2017

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