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      LncRNA-Dependent Mechanisms of Androgen Receptor-regulated Gene Activation Programs

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          Abstract

          While recent studies indicated roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in physiologic aspects of cell-type determination and tissue homeostasis 1 yet their potential involvement in regulated gene transcription programs remain rather poorly understood. Androgen receptor (AR) regulates a large repertoire of genes central to the identity and behavior of prostate cancer cells 2 , and functions in a ligand-independent fashion in many prostate cancers when they become hormone refractory after initial androgen deprivation therapy 3 . Here, we report that two lncRNAs highly overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer, PRNCR1 and PCGEM1, bind successively to the AR and strongly enhance both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR-mediated gene activation programs and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Binding of PRNCR1 to the C-terminally acetylated AR on enhancers and its association with DOT1L appear to be required for recruitment of the second lncRNA, PCGEM1, to the DOT1L-mediated methylated AR N-terminus. Unexpectedly, recognition of specific protein marks by PCGEM1-recruited Pygopus2 PHD domain proves to enhance selective looping of AR-bound enhancers to target gene promoters in these cells. In “resistant” prostate cancer cells, these overexpressed lncRNAs can interact with, and are required for, the robust activation of both truncated and full length AR, causing ligand-independent activation of the AR transcriptional program and cell proliferation. Conditionally-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting of these lncRNAs in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines strongly suppressed tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Together, these results suggest that these overexpressed lncRNAs can potentially serve as a required component of castration-resistance in prostatic tumors.

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          Most cited references 12

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          A clustering approach for identification of enriched domains from histone modification ChIP-Seq data.

          Chromatin states are the key to gene regulation and cell identity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is increasingly being used to map epigenetic states across genomes of diverse species. Chromatin modification profiles are frequently noisy and diffuse, spanning regions ranging from several nucleosomes to large domains of multiple genes. Much of the early work on the identification of ChIP-enriched regions for ChIP-Seq data has focused on identifying localized regions, such as transcription factor binding sites. Bioinformatic tools to identify diffuse domains of ChIP-enriched regions have been lacking. Based on the biological observation that histone modifications tend to cluster to form domains, we present a method that identifies spatial clusters of signals unlikely to appear by chance. This method pools together enrichment information from neighboring nucleosomes to increase sensitivity and specificity. By using genomic-scale analysis, as well as the examination of loci with validated epigenetic states, we demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in the identification of ChIP-enriched signals for histone modification profiles. We demonstrate the application of this unbiased method in important issues in ChIP-Seq data analysis, such as data normalization for quantitative comparison of levels of epigenetic modifications across cell types and growth conditions. http://home.gwu.edu/ approximately wpeng/Software.htm. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            ncRNA- and Pc2 methylation-dependent gene relocation between nuclear structures mediates gene activation programs.

            Although eukaryotic nuclei contain distinct architectural structures associated with noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), their potential relationship to regulated transcriptional programs remains poorly understood. Here, we report that methylation/demethylation of Polycomb 2 protein (Pc2) controls relocation of growth-control genes between Polycomb bodies (PcGs) and interchromatin granules (ICGs) in response to growth signals. This movement is the consequence of binding of methylated and unmethylated Pc2 to the ncRNAs TUG1 and MALAT1/NEAT2, located in PcGs and ICGs, respectively. These ncRNAs mediate assembly of multiple corepressors/coactivators and can serve to switch mark recognition by "readers" of the histone code. Additionally, binding of NEAT2 to unmethylated Pc2 promotes E2F1 SUMOylation, leading to activation of the growth-control gene program. These observations delineate a molecular pathway linking the actions of subnuclear structure-specific ncRNAs and nonhistone protein methylation to relocation of transcription units in the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, thus achieving coordinated gene expression programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Association of a novel long non-coding RNA in 8q24 with prostate cancer susceptibility.

              Recent genome-wide association studies reported strong and reproducible associations of multiple genetic variants in a large "gene-desert" region of chromosome 8q24 with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PC). However, the causative or functional variants of these 8q24 loci and their biological mechanisms associated with PC susceptibility remain unclear and should be investigated. Here, focusing on its most centromeric region (so-called Region 2: Chr8: 128.14-128.28 Mb) among the multiple PC loci on 8q24, we performed fine mapping and re-sequencing of this critical region and identified SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) between rs1456315 and rs7463708 (chr8: 128,173,119-128,173,237 bp) to be most significantly associated with PC susceptibility (P = 2.00 × 10(-24) , OR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.93). Importantly, we show that this region was transcribed as a ∼13 kb intron-less long non-coding RNA (ncRNA), termed PRNCR1 (prostate cancer non-coding RNA 1), and PRNCR1 expression was upregulated in some of the PC cells as well as precursor lesion prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Knockdown of PRNCR1 by siRNA attenuated the viability of PC cells and the transactivation activity of androgen receptor, which indicates that PRNCR1 could be involved in prostate carcinogenesis possibly through androgen receptor activity. These findings could provide a new insight in understanding the pathogenesis of genetic factors for PC susceptibility and prostate carcinogenesis. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                0410462
                6011
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                18 May 2014
                14 August 2013
                29 August 2013
                27 May 2014
                : 500
                : 7464
                : 598-602
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
                [2 ]Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
                [3 ]Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento 95817, USA
                [4 ]Graduate Program, Kellogg School of Science and Technology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla 92037, USA
                [5 ]Bioinformatics and System Biology Program, Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
                [6 ]Neurosciences Graduate Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
                Author notes
                [# ] Corresponding Authors Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.G.R. ( mrosenfeld@ 123456ucsd.edu ), L.-Q.Y. ( lyang7@ 123456mdanderson.org ) and C.-R.L. ( clin2@ 123456mdanderson.org ).
                Article
                NIHMS505618
                10.1038/nature12451
                4034386
                23945587

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