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      Excessive dietary phosphorus intake impairs endothelial function in young healthy men: a time- and dose-dependent study

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          Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

          Vascular calcification is a common finding in atherosclerosis and a serious problem in diabetic and uremic patients. Because of the correlation of hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, the ability of extracellular inorganic phosphate levels to regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell (HSMC) culture mineralization in vitro was examined. HSMCs cultured in media containing normal physiological levels of inorganic phosphate (1.4 mmol/L) did not mineralize. In contrast, HSMCs cultured in media containing phosphate levels comparable to those seen in hyperphosphatemic individuals (>1.4 mmol/L) showed dose-dependent increases in mineral deposition. Mechanistic studies revealed that elevated phosphate treatment of HSMCs also enhanced the expression of the osteoblastic differentiation markers osteocalcin and Cbfa-1. The effects of elevated phosphate on HSMCs were mediated by a sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPC), as indicated by the ability of the specific NPC inhibitor phosphonoformic acid, to dose dependently inhibit phosphate-induced calcium deposition as well as osteocalcin and Cbfa-1 gene expression. With the use of polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analyses, the NPC in HSMCs was identified as Pit-1 (Glvr-1), a member of the novel type III NPCs. These data suggest that elevated phosphate may directly stimulate HSMCs to undergo phenotypic changes that predispose to calcification and offer a novel explanation of the phenomenon of vascular calcification under hyperphosphatemic conditions. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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            Relation between serum phosphate level and cardiovascular event rate in people with coronary disease.

            Higher levels of serum phosphate are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, especially in the setting of overt hyperphosphatemia. Given the biological importance of phosphorus, it is plausible that higher levels of serum phosphate within the normal range may also be associated with adverse outcomes. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Cholesterol And Recurrent Events (CARE) study. Baseline serum phosphate levels were measured in 4127 fasting participants who were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg daily or placebo and followed up for a median of 59.7 months. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to examine the association between serum phosphate and adverse clinical outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. During nearly 60 months of follow-up, 375 participants died. A significant association was noted between baseline serum phosphate level and the age-, race-, and sex-adjusted risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio per 1 mg/dL, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.58). After categorization based on baseline phosphate level ( or =4 mg/dL) and further adjustment, a graded independent relation between phosphate and death was observed (P for trend=0.03). For instance, participants with serum phosphate > or =3.5 mg/dL had an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.59) compared with those with serum phosphate of <3.5 mg/dL. Higher levels of serum phosphate were also associated with increased risk of new heart failure, myocardial infarction, and the composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but not the risk of stroke. We found a graded independent relation between higher levels of serum phosphate and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in people with prior myocardial infarction, most of whom had serum phosphate levels within the normal range. Given the ready availability and low cost of serum phosphate assays, this finding may prove clinically useful.
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              Emerging biomarkers for evaluating cardiovascular risk in the chronic kidney disease patient: how do new pieces fit into the uremic puzzle?

              Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke, peripheral vascular disease, sudden death, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure, is a notorious problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because the presence of CVD is independently associated with kidney function decline, it appears that the relationship between CKD and CVD is reciprocal or bidirectional, and that it is this association that leads to the vicious circle contributing to premature death. As randomized, placebo-controlled trials have so far been disappointing and unable to show a survival benefit of various treatment strategies, such a lipid-lowering, increased dialysis dose and normalization of hemoglobin, the risk factor profile seems to be different in CKD compared with the general population. Indeed, seemingly paradoxical associations between traditional risk factors and cardiovascular outcome in patients with advanced CKD have complicated our efforts to identify the real cardiovascular culprits. This review focuses on the many new pieces that need to be fit into the complicated puzzle of uremic vascular disease, including persistent inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and vascular ossification. Each of these is not only highly prevalent in CKD but also more strongly linked to CVD in these patients than in the general population. However, a causal relationship between these new markers and CVD in CKD patients remains to be established. Finally, two novel disciplines, proteomics and epigenetics, will be discussed, because these tools may be helpful in the understanding of the discussed vascular risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Medical Investigation
                J. Med. Invest.
                University of Tokushima Faculty of Medicine
                1343-1420
                1349-6867
                2015
                2015
                : 62
                : 3.4
                : 167-172
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food Management, University of Tokushima Graduate School
                [2 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Kurashiki Medical Center
                [3 ]Department of Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School
                [4 ]Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School
                Article
                10.2152/jmi.62.167
                beac2a7c-1d5d-4697-849d-c27178d245a3
                © 2015

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