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      Metabolite Profiling Revealed That a Gardening Activity Program Improves Cognitive Ability Correlated with BDNF Levels and Serotonin Metabolism in the Elderly

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          Metabolomics is useful for evaluating the fundamental mechanisms of improvements in the health functions of the elderly. Additionally, gardening intervention as a regular physical activity for the elderly maintained and improved physical, psychology, cognitive, and social health. This study was conducted to determine whether the cognitive ability of the elderly is affected by participating in a gardening activity program as a physical activity with a metabolomic potential biomarker. The gardening program was designed as a low to moderate intensity physical activity for the elderly. Serum metabolites resulting from gardening were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadruple-orbitrap-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analyses. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed distinct clustering patterns among the control, non-gardening, and gardening groups. According to the pathway analysis, tryptophan metabolism including tryptophan, kynurenine, and serotonin showed significantly distinctive metabolites in the gardening group. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels (BDNF) in the gardening group were significantly increased after the gardening program. Correlation map analysis showed that the relative levels of tryptophan metabolites were positively correlated with BDNF. Our results show that tryptophan, kynurenine, and serotonin may be useful as metabolic biomarkers for improved cognitive ability by the gardening intervention.

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          Opinion: understanding 'global' systems biology: metabonomics and the continuum of metabolism.

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            Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain.

            We provide a brief review of the literature on exercise effects on brain and cognition. To this end, we focus on both prospective and retrospective human epidemiological studies that have examined the influence of exercise and physical activity on cognition and dementia. We then examine the relatively small set of human randomized clinical trials that have, for the most part, focused on exercise training effects on cognition. Next, we discuss animal research that has examined the molecular, cellular, and behavioral effects of exercise training. Finally, we conclude with a summary and brief discussion of important future directions of research on fitness cognition and brain.
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              Physical activity and memory functions: an interventional study.

              Previous studies have suggested beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition. Here, we asked in an interventional approach if physical activity performed at different intensity levels would differentially affect episodic memory function. Additionally, we tried to identify mechanisms mediating these changes. Sixty-two healthy elderly individuals were assessed for level of physical activity, aerobic fitness, episodic memory score, neurotrophin and catecholamine levels, and received a magnetic resonance image of the brain at baseline and after a six months intervention of medium or low-intensity physical activity or control. Increase in total physical activity was positively associated with increase in memory score over the entire cohort, without significant differences between intensity groups. It was also positively associated with increases in local gray matter volume in prefrontal and cingulate cortex, and BDNF levels (trend). In conclusion, we showed that physical activity conveys the beneficial effects on memory function independently of its intensity, possibly mediated by local gray matter volume and neurotrophic factors. Our findings may carry significant implications for prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                15 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 17
                : 2
                [1 ]Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; danapre@ 123456nate.com
                [2 ]Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; syson119@ 123456naver.com
                [3 ]Sport Science Center in Daejeon, Daejeon 34134, Korea; exepre@ 123456cnu.ac.kr
                [4 ]Department of Sport Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea; leewl@ 123456cnu.ac.kr
                [5 ]Research Institute for Bioactive-Metabolome Network, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sapark42@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (S.-A.P.); chlee123@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (C.H.L.); Tel.: +82-2-450-0537 (S.-A.P.); +82-2-2049-6177 (C.H.L.)

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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