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      Affective and Social Self- Regulatory Efficacy Beliefs as Determinants of Positive Thinking and Happiness

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      European Psychologist
      Hogrefe Publishing Group

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          The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.

          In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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            Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities

            Ed Diener (1994)
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              Gender differences in personality: a meta-analysis.

              Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Psychologist
                European Psychologist
                Hogrefe Publishing Group
                1016-9040
                1878-531X
                January 2005
                January 2005
                : 10
                : 4
                : 275-286
                Article
                10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.275
                c1080afc-b887-43e2-bfb8-20b4bedde81a
                © 2005
                History

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