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      Prevention of thrombotic disorders by antithrombotic diet and exercise: evidence by using global thrombosis tests


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          Prevention of thrombotic disorders has priority over treatment. There are only two pathologically relevant tests which are suitable for measuring the overall thrombotic status both in experimental conditions and in humans. The Global Thrombosis Test (GTT) and the Global Parallel-Plate Thrombosis Test can detect the pathologically relevant global thrombotic status. These tests have been successfully used for monitoring the effect of antithrombotic drugs and for developing novel antithrombotic agents. By using GTT, varieties of fruits, vegetables, and regular physical exercise have been tested for the effect on global thrombotic status. This review discusses the published evidence for the benefit of diet of selected fruit and vegetable varieties and doing regular physical exercise on improving thrombotic status. Future clinical trials monitored by GTT or Global Parallel-Plate Thrombosis Test could decide on the effectiveness of an experimentally proven antithrombotic diet with regular physical exercise in the prevention of thrombotic diseases.

          Lay abstract

          Prevention of deadly diseases like heart attack or stroke is more effective than treating patients with already progressed disease. Epidemiologic studies raised the possibility that eating healthy food and doing physical exercise may prevent thrombotic diseases. To create an ‘antithrombotic diet’, fruits and vegetables should be selected and the benefit of diet and exercise should be monitored in people. We found that the Global Thrombosis Tests are useful for both selection of antithrombotic diet components and monitoring thrombotic status of individuals.

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          Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

          In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)]
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            Platelet function tests: a comparative review

            In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered.
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              Pedometer-measured physical activity and health behaviors in U.S. adults.

              U.S. adults may have lower levels of ambulatory physical activity compared with adults living in other countries. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive, epidemiological data on the average number of steps per day estimated to be taken by U.S. adults and to identify predictors of pedometer-measured physical activity on the basis of demographic characteristics and self-reported behavioral characteristics. The America On the Move study was conducted in 2003. Individuals (N = 2522) aged 13 yr and older consented to fill out a survey, including 1921 adults aged 18 yr and older. Valid pedometer data were collected on 1136 adults with Accusplit AE120 pedometers. Data were weighted to reflect the general U.S. population according to several variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, level of physical activity, and number of 5- to 17-yr-old children in the household). Differences in steps per day between subgroups were analyzed using unpaired t-tests when only two subgroups were involved or one-way ANOVA if multiple subgroups were involved. Adults reported taking an average of 5117 steps per day. Male gender, younger age, higher education level, single marital status, and lower body mass index were all positively associated with steps per day. Steps per day were positively related to other self-reported measures of physical activity and negatively related to self-reported measures on physical inactivity. Living environment (urban, suburban, or rural) and eating habits were not associated with steps per day. In the current study, men and women living in the United States took fewer steps per day than those living in Switzerland, Australia, and Japan. We conclude that low levels of ambulatory physical activity are contributing to the high prevalence of adult obesity in the United States.

                Author and article information

                Future Sci OA
                Future Sci OA
                Future Science OA
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                April 2018
                24 January 2018
                : 4
                : 4
                : FSO285
                [1 ]Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 651–2180, Japan
                [2 ]Faculty of Health & Nutrition, Osaka Shoin Women's University, Osaka 577–8550, Japan
                [3 ]School of Economics, University of Hyogo, Kobe 651–2197, Japan
                [4 ]Clinical Department of General Internal Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe 650–0017, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kobe Rosai Hospital, Kobe 651–0053, Japan
                [6 ]KellSa s.a.s. Str. Campo e Zampo 12, I-13900 Biella, BI, Italy
                Author notes
                *Author for correspondence: Tel./Fax: +81 78 936 6046; yamamoto@ 123456nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp
                © 2018 Junichiro Yamamoto

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

                : 18 September 2017
                : 2 January 2018
                : 24 January 2018

                antithrombotic vegetables,cardiovascular disease,exercise paradox,fibrinolysis,global parallel-plate thrombosis test,global thrombosis test,platelet aggregation,shear rate,shear stress,stroke


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