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      Diastolic dysfunction is more apparent in STZ-induced diabetic female mice, despite less pronounced hyperglycemia

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          Abstract

          Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct pathology characterized by early emergence of diastolic dysfunction. Increased cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes is more marked for women, but an understanding of the role of diastolic dysfunction in female susceptibility to diabetic cardiomyopathy is lacking. To investigate the sex-specific relationship between systemic diabetic status and in vivo occurrence of diastolic dysfunction, diabetes was induced in male and female mice by streptozotocin (5x daily i.p. 55 mg/kg). Echocardiography was performed at 7 weeks post-diabetes induction, cardiac collagen content assessed by picrosirius red staining, and gene expression measured using qPCR. The extent of diabetes-associated hyperglycemia was more marked in males than females (males: 25.8 ± 1.2 vs 9.1 ± 0.4 mM; females: 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 8.4 ± 0.4 mM, p < 0.05) yet in vivo diastolic dysfunction was evident in female (E/E′ 54% increase, p < 0.05) but not male diabetic mice. Cardiac structural abnormalities (left ventricular wall thinning, collagen deposition) were similar in male and female diabetic mice. Female-specific gene expression changes in glucose metabolic and autophagy-related genes were evident. This study demonstrates that STZ-induced diabetic female mice exhibit a heightened susceptibility to diastolic dysfunction, despite exhibiting a lower extent of hyperglycemia than male mice. These findings highlight the importance of early echocardiographic screening of asymptomatic prediabetic at-risk patients.

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          Diabetic cardiomyopathy: mechanisms and new treatment strategies targeting antioxidant signaling pathways.

          Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic population. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest that diabetic subjects are predisposed to a distinct cardiomyopathy, independent of concomitant macro- and microvascular disorders. 'Diabetic cardiomyopathy' is characterized by early impairments in diastolic function, accompanied by the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The pathophysiology underlying diabetes-induced cardiac damage is complex and multifactorial, with elevated oxidative stress as a key contributor. We now review the current evidence of molecular disturbances present in the diabetic heart, and their role in the development of diabetes-induced impairments in myocardial function and structure. Our focus incorporates both the contribution of increased reactive oxygen species production and reduced antioxidant defenses to diabetic cardiomyopathy, together with modulation of protein signaling pathways and the emerging role of protein O-GlcNAcylation and miRNA dysregulation in the progression of diabetic heart disease. Lastly, we discuss both conventional and novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients, from inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, through recent evidence favoring supplementation of endogenous antioxidants for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene therapy targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K(p110α) signaling pathway, and miRNA dysregulation, are also reviewed. Targeting redox stress and protective protein signaling pathways may represent a future strategy for combating the ever-increasing incidence of heart failure in the diabetic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Autosis is a Na+,K+-ATPase-regulated form of cell death triggered by autophagy-inducing peptides, starvation, and hypoxia-ischemia.

            A long-standing controversy is whether autophagy is a bona fide cause of mammalian cell death. We used a cell-penetrating autophagy-inducing peptide, Tat-Beclin 1, derived from the autophagy protein Beclin 1, to investigate whether high levels of autophagy result in cell death by autophagy. Here we show that Tat-Beclin 1 induces dose-dependent death that is blocked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy, but not of apoptosis or necroptosis. This death, termed "autosis," has unique morphological features, including increased autophagosomes/autolysosomes and nuclear convolution at early stages, and focal swelling of the perinuclear space at late stages. We also observed autotic death in cells during stress conditions, including in a subpopulation of nutrient-starved cells in vitro and in hippocampal neurons of neonatal rats subjected to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in vivo. A chemical screen of ~5,000 known bioactive compounds revealed that cardiac glycosides, antagonists of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibit autotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, genetic knockdown of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit blocks peptide and starvation-induced autosis in vitro. Thus, we have identified a unique form of autophagy-dependent cell death, a Food and Drug Administration-approved class of compounds that inhibit such death, and a crucial role for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in its regulation. These findings have implications for understanding how cells die during certain stress conditions and how such cell death might be prevented.
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              Myocardial cell death in human diabetes.

              The renin-angiotensin system is upregulated with diabetes, and this may contribute to the development of a dilated myopathy. Angiotensin II (Ang II) locally may lead to oxidative damage, activating cardiac cell death. Moreover, diabetes and hypertension could synergistically impair myocardial structure and function. Therefore, apoptosis and necrosis were measured in ventricular myocardial biopsies obtained from diabetic and diabetic-hypertensive patients. Accumulation of a marker of oxidative stress, nitrotyrosine, and Ang II labeling were evaluated quantitatively. The diabetic heart showed cardiac hypertrophy, cavitary dilation, and depressed ventricular performance. These alterations were more severe with diabetes and hypertension. Diabetes was characterized by an 85-fold, 61-fold, and 26-fold increase in apoptosis of myocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, respectively. Apoptosis in cardiac cells did not increase additionally with diabetes and hypertension. Diabetes increased necrosis by 4-fold in myocytes, 9-fold in endothelial cells, and 6-fold in fibroblasts. However, diabetes and hypertension increased necrosis by 7-fold in myocytes and 18-fold in endothelial cells. Similarly, Ang II labeling in myocytes and endothelial cells increased more with diabetes and hypertension than with diabetes alone. Nitrotyrosine localization in cardiac cells followed a comparable pattern. In spite of the difference in the number of nitrotyrosine-positive cells with diabetes and with diabetes and hypertension, apoptosis and necrosis of myocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts were detected only in cells containing this modified amino acid. In conclusion, local increases in Ang II with diabetes and with diabetes and hypertension may enhance oxidative damage, activating cardiac cell apoptosis and necrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lmd@unimelb.edu.au
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                5 February 2018
                5 February 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Department of Physiology, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, School of Biomedical Sciences, , University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [3 ]Heart Failure Pharmacology, Baker Heart & Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 3343, GRID grid.9654.e, Department of Physiology, , University of Auckland, ; Auckland, New Zealand
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, , University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, School of Biosciences, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9905, GRID grid.419385.2, National Heart Centre, ; Singapore, Singapore
                Article
                20703
                10.1038/s41598-018-20703-8
                5799292
                29402990
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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