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      Evaluation of psychometric properties of the maastricht upper extremity questionnaire (MUEQ) in iranian computer users


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          Measurement of the essential risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders is a fundamental step in predicting the problem and identifying high-risk individuals. In this regard, Maastricht upper extremity questionnaire (MUEQ) has not been validated in Iran. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable Persian version of MUEQ.


          In this descriptive study, the computer users employed in a governmental informatics administration in Tehran, Iran, were included during the end of 2018 and early 2019. Face and content validity of the MUEQ was conducted, and a six-part questionnaire was provided. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's α and test–retest. Concurrent validity was assessed with Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, comparison test of independent mean, internal consistency coefficient, test–retest, and Pearson correlation were carried out using the AMOS and SPSS 22 software.


          Participants consisted of 282 computer users (110 males) with a mean age of 35.17 ± 7.65 years. The mean duration of computer use in a working day was 6.68 ± 2.10 h with a range of 1–12 h. The most prevalent symptoms were existed in the neck (39.1%), back (31.0%), and lower back (30.3%) areas. KMO test and Bartlett's test of sphericity showed that a significant correlation existed among questions. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire varied from 0.61 to 0.83 and test–retest coefficient was higher than 0.7. Correlation coefficient was between NMQ and body posture ( r = 0.23, P = 0.004) and between NMQ and work environment ( r = 0.28, P = 0.000). Evaluations related to the construct validity and concurrent validity demonstrated that the questionnaire has acceptable construct validity. Six factors of the MUEQ in Root Mean Squared Error Approximation (RMSEA) index (0.062) were acceptable and satisfactory in Parsimony Comparative Fit Index (PCFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), and Parsimony Goodness of Fit Index (PGFI) (0.732, 0.8000, 0.680, and 0.680, respectively).


          The Persian version of the MUEQ represented a satisfactory validity and reliability and was suitable for computer users in the assessment of their risk factors of musculoskeletal complaints.

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          Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

          Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.
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            Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi-experimental study

            Objective To investigate if the widely publicized warnings in 2003 from the US Food and Drug Administration about a possible increased risk of suicidality with antidepressant use in young people were associated with changes in antidepressant use, suicide attempts, and completed suicides among young people. Design Quasi-experimental study assessing changes in outcomes after the warnings, controlling for pre-existing trends. Setting Automated healthcare claims data (2000-10) derived from the virtual data warehouse of 11 health plans in the US Mental Health Research Network. Participants Study cohorts included adolescents (around 1.1 million), young adults (around 1.4 million), and adults (around 5 million). Main outcome measures Rates of antidepressant dispensings, psychotropic drug poisonings (a validated proxy for suicide attempts), and completed suicides. Results Trends in antidepressant use and poisonings changed abruptly after the warnings. In the second year after the warnings, relative changes in antidepressant use were −31.0% (95% confidence interval −33.0% to −29.0%) among adolescents, −24.3% (−25.4% to −23.2%) among young adults, and −14.5% (−16.0% to −12.9%) among adults. These reflected absolute reductions of 696, 1216, and 1621 dispensings per 100 000 people among adolescents, young adults, and adults, respectively. Simultaneously, there were significant, relative increases in psychotropic drug poisonings in adolescents (21.7%, 95% confidence interval 4.9% to 38.5%) and young adults (33.7%, 26.9% to 40.4%) but not among adults (5.2%, −6.5% to 16.9%). These reflected absolute increases of 2 and 4 poisonings per 100 000 people among adolescents and young adults, respectively (approximately 77 additional poisonings in our cohort of 2.5 million young people). Completed suicides did not change for any age group. Conclusions Safety warnings about antidepressants and widespread media coverage decreased antidepressant use, and there were simultaneous increases in suicide attempts among young people. It is essential to monitor and reduce possible unintended consequences of FDA warnings and media reporting.
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              Prevalence of complaints of arm, neck and shoulder among computer office workers and psychometric evaluation of a risk factor questionnaire

              Background Complaints of Arm Neck and Shoulder (CANS) represent a wide range of complaints, which can differ in severity from mild, periodic symptoms to severe, chronic and debilitating conditions. They are thought to be associated with both physical and psychosocial risk factors. The measurement and identification of the various risk factors for these complaints is an important step towards recognizing (a) high risk subgroups that are relevant in profiling CANS; and (b) also for developing targeted and effective intervention plans for treatment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of CANS in a Dutch population of computer workers and to develop a questionnaire aimed at measuring workplace physical and psychosocial risk factors for the presence of these complaints. Methods To examine potential workplace risk factors for the presence of CANS, the Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ), a structured questionnaire, was developed and tested among 264 computer office workers of a branch office of the national social security institution in the Netherlands. The MUEQ holds 95 items covering demographic characteristics, in addition to seven main domains assessing potential risk factors with regard to (1) work station, (2) posture during work, (3) quality of break time, (4) job demands, (5) job control, and (6) social support. The MUEQ further contained some additional questions about the quality of the work environment and the presence of complaints in the neck, shoulder, upper and lower arm, elbow, hand and wrist. The prevalence rates of CANS in the past year were computed. Further, we investigated the psychometric properties of the MUEQ (i.e. factor structure and reliability). Results The one-year prevalence rate of CANS indicated that 54% of the respondents reported at least one complaint in the arm, neck and/or shoulder. The highest prevalence rates were found for neck and shoulder symptoms (33% and 31% respectively), followed by hand and upper arm complaints (11% to 12%) and elbow, lower arm and wrist complaints (6% to 7%). The psychometric properties of the MUEQ were assessed using exploratory factor analysis which resulted in the identification of 12 factors. The calculation of internal consistency and cross validation provided evidence of reliability and lack of redundancy of items. Conclusion Neck and shoulder complaints are more frequently reported among Dutch computer workers than arm, elbow and hand complaints. The results further indicate that the MUEQ has satisfactory reliability and internal consistency when used to document CANS among computer workers in the Netherlands.

                Author and article information

                J Educ Health Promot
                J Educ Health Promot
                Journal of Education and Health Promotion
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                30 July 2021
                : 10
                [1] Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [1 ] School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran and Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ] Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Fatemeh Rahmati, Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: fatemeh_rahmati@ 123456bmsu.ac.ir
                Copyright: © 2021 Journal of Education and Health Promotion

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                maastricht upper extremity questionnaire,musculoskeletal disorders,psychometrics


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