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      Assessment of Cardiovascular Fibrosis Using Novel Fluorescent Probes

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          Cardiovascular fibrosis resulted from pressure overload or ischemia could alter myocardial stiffness and lead to ventricular dysfunction. Fluorescently labeled collagen-binding protein CNA 35, derived from the surface component of Staphylococcus aureus, and a novel synthetic biphenylalanine containing peptide are applied to stain fibrosis associated collagen and myocytes, respectively. Detailed pathological characteristics of cardiovascular fibrosis could be identified clearly in 2 hours. This staining pair requires only simple staining and brief washing, generating less than 10 ml of waste. The image information collected by this novel fluorescent staining pair is compatible with it collected by the traditional Masson's Trichrome and Picrosirius Red staining which are widely used to stain cardiovascular fibrosis and isolated cells.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Cardiac fibroblasts: at the heart of myocardial remodeling.

          Cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and play a key role in regulating normal myocardial function and in the adverse myocardial remodeling that occurs with hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Many of the functional effects of cardiac fibroblasts are mediated through differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype that expresses contractile proteins and exhibits increased migratory, proliferative and secretory properties. Cardiac myofibroblasts respond to proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNFalpha, IL-1, IL-6, TGF-beta), vasoactive peptides (e.g. angiotensin II, endothelin-1, natriuretic peptides) and hormones (e.g. noradrenaline), the levels of which are increased in the remodeling heart. Their function is also modulated by mechanical stretch and changes in oxygen availability (e.g. ischaemia-reperfusion). Myofibroblast responses to such stimuli include changes in cell proliferation, cell migration, extracellular matrix metabolism and secretion of various bioactive molecules including cytokines, vasoactive peptides and growth factors. Several classes of commonly prescribed therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease also exert pleiotropic effects on cardiac fibroblasts that may explain some of their beneficial outcomes on the remodeling heart. These include drugs for reducing hypertension (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers), cholesterol levels (statins, fibrates) and insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). In this review, we provide insight into the properties of cardiac fibroblasts that underscores their importance in the remodeling heart, including their origin, electrophysiological properties, role in matrix metabolism, functional responses to environmental stimuli and ability to secrete bioactive molecules. We also review the evidence suggesting that certain cardiovascular drugs can reduce myocardial remodeling specifically via modulatory effects on cardiac fibroblasts.
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            Mechanisms and models in heart failure: the biomechanical model and beyond.

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              Periostin induces proliferation of differentiated cardiomyocytes and promotes cardiac repair.

              Adult mammalian hearts respond to injury with scar formation and not with cardiomyocyte proliferation, the cellular basis of regeneration. Although cardiogenic progenitor cells may maintain myocardial turnover, they do not give rise to a robust regenerative response. Here we show that extracellular periostin induced reentry of differentiated mammalian cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle. Periostin stimulated mononucleated cardiomyocytes to go through the full mitotic cell cycle. Periostin activated alphaV, beta1, beta3 and beta5 integrins located in the cardiomyocyte cell membrane. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase was required for periostin-induced reentry of cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle and was sufficient for cell-cycle reentry in the absence of periostin. After myocardial infarction, periostin-induced cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry and mitosis were associated with improved ventricular remodeling and myocardial function, reduced fibrosis and infarct size, and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin and the pathway that it regulates may provide a target for innovative strategies to treat heart failure.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                20 April 2011
                : 6
                : 4
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston, Texas, United States of America
                Heart Center Munich, Germany
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JC SKL WRAE CHT. Performed the experiments: JC SKL WRAE LL EYG. Analyzed the data: JC SKL WRAE LL EYG RJH CHT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JC SKL WRAE. Wrote the paper: JC SKL WRAE LL EYG RJH CHT.

                Chen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Pages: 6
                Research Article
                Acute Cardiovascular Problems
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Anatomical Pathology
                General Pathology
                Molecular Pathology



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