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      The pattern in prevalence and sociodemographic factors of smoking in Malaysia, 2011–2019: Findings from national surveys


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          Smoking is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, with Malaysia no exception. Through the Ministry of Health and other ministries in the government of Malaysia, numerous anti-smoking measures have been introduced to prevent and control smoking in the country. Continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence in the community is essential in order to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-smoking policies. This study aims to update the sociodemographic factors associated with smoking in the past decade in Malaysia.


          The study utilized data from three national household surveys in Malaysia, namely the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011, the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015 and the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019. These surveys adopted a multistage stratified sampling design that represents the population in Malaysia. Smoking status was determined based on the GATS protocol and definitions. Complex sample design estimates and complex multivariable logistic regression were used in the analysis.


          A total of 4250, 21410 and 11111 respondents aged ≥15 years participated in GATS 2011, NHMS 2015 and NHMS 2019, respectively, with a response rate between 85% and 87%. The prevalence of smoking was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.2–25.2) in 2011, 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9–23.8) in 2015 and 21.3% (95% CI: 19.9–22.8) in 2019. The prevalence was consistently higher in males (40.5–43.9%), adults aged 25–44 years (25.4–29.0%), Malay (22.6–24.7%), other ethnicities (30.0–35.0%), and the self-employed (33.7–44.6%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of smoking was higher in males, in younger and middle age groups, Malays, and those with lower education level.


          There were slight changes in the sociodemographic factors of smoking in the past decade in Malaysia. Stern measures and more aggressive strategies are needed to address all the risk factors in controlling smoking behavior in the country.

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          The Health Belief Model as an Explanatory Framework in Communication Research: Exploring Parallel, Serial, and Moderated Mediation

          The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, and threat. While the model seems to be an ideal explanatory framework for communication research, theoretical limitations have limited its use in the field. Notably, variable ordering is currently undefined in the HBM. Thus, it is unclear whether constructs mediate relationships comparably (parallel mediation), in sequence (serial mediation), or in tandem with a moderator (moderated mediation). To investigate variable ordering, adults (N = 1,377) completed a survey in the aftermath of an 8-month flu vaccine campaign grounded in the HBM. Exposure to the campaign was positively related to vaccination behavior. Statistical evaluation supported a model where the indirect effect of exposure on behavior through perceived barriers and threat was moderated by self-efficacy (moderated mediation). Perceived barriers and benefits also formed a serial mediation chain. The results indicate that variable ordering in the Health Belief Model may be complex, may help to explain conflicting results of the past, and may be a good focus for future research.
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            Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Thirteen Low and Middle Income Countries: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey

            Background Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008–2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and across countries.
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              A growing geographic disparity: Rural and urban cigarette smoking trends in the United States

              Rural areas of the United States have a higher smoking prevalence than urban areas. However, no recent studies have rigorously examined potential changes in this disparity over time or whether the disparity can be explained by demographic or psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking. The present study used yearly cross sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007 through 2014 to examine cigarette smoking trends in rural versus urban areas of the United States. The analytic sample included 303,311 respondents. Two regression models were built to examine (a) unadjusted rural and urban trends in prevalence of current smoking and (b) whether differences remained after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results of the unadjusted model showed disparate and diverging cigarette use trends during the 8-year time period. The adjusted model also showed diverging trends, initially with no or small differences that became more pronounced across the 8-year period. We conclude that differences reported in earlier studies may be explained by differences in rural versus urban demographic and psychosocial risk factors, while more recent and growing disparities appear to be related to other factors. These emergent differences may be attributable to policy-level tobacco control and regulatory factors that disproportionately benefit urban areas such as enforcement of regulations around the sale and marketing of tobacco products and treatment availability. Strong federal policies and targeted or tailored interventions may be important to expanding tobacco control and regulatory benefits to vulnerable populations including rural Americans.

                Author and article information

                Tob Induc Dis
                Tob Induc Dis
                Tobacco Induced Diseases
                European Publishing on behalf of the International Society for the Prevention of Tobacco Induced Diseases (ISPTID)
                01 October 2022
                : 20
                : 84
                [1 ]Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Shah Alam, Malaysia
                [2 ]Institute for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE TO Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff. Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, No. 1, Jalan Setia Murni U13/52, Seksyen U13, Setia Alam, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: fadhli_my@ 123456moh.gov.my ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3962-5847
                © 2022 Mohd Yusoff M.F. et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 24 January 2022
                : 11 May 2022
                : 26 July 2022
                Research Paper

                Respiratory medicine
                smoking,prevalence,associated factors,national health morbidity survey,malaysia


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