Determination of the blood (1→3)-β- D-glucan (β-DG) concentration is a sensitive marker to detect the presence of deep mycosis and fungal infections. Although cellulose material is known to contain β-DG, the influence of a cellulose dialyzer membrane on the blood β-DG level remains to be elucidated. In this study, we determined the plasma β-DG levels in dialysis outpatients using either a modified regenerated cellulose (MRC) or a synthetic polysulfone (PS) membrane for more than 3 months. Plasma β-DG levels were extremely high in patients using the MRC (2,778 ± 549 pg/ml, n = 9) but not the PS membrane (18.8 ± 3.7 pg/ml, n = 8) compared to normal ranges (<20 pg/ml). A single dialysis session using the MRC membrane further increased blood β-DG values to 5,561 ± 722 pg/ml (p < 0.01). After changing the membranes from MRC to PS, the blood β-DG levels gradually decreased and reached 29.6 ± 6.0 pg/ml at 6 months. In contrast, the PS membrane did not affect plasma β-DG levels after a single dialysis session (16.0 ± 3.9 pg/ml) or 4 months later (24.0 ± 4.9 pg/ml). These findings suggested that a cellulose membrane could influence the measurement of blood β-DG concentrations in the long-term. Careful assessment is required to diagnose the presence of fungal infection in HD patients using a cellulose membane.