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      Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records


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          Instrumentally homogeneous SST records show a cooling bias in composite SST products and validate recent NOAA recent record revision.


          Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency’s Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07° to 0.12°C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets.

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          Most cited references29

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          Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set

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            Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 4 (ERSST.v4). Part I: Upgrades and Intercomparisons

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              Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends


                Author and article information

                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                January 2017
                04 January 2017
                : 3
                : 1
                [1 ]Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
                [2 ]Berkeley Earth, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA.
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, U.K.
                [4 ]Independent Researcher, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
                [5 ]Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.
                [6 ]NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Email: hausfath@ 123456berkeley.edu
                Copyright © 2017, The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article
                Research Articles
                SciAdv r-articles
                Climate Change
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                Florcloven Cruz

                sea surface temperature, climate change, homogeneity


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