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      Comparison of the Humoral Markers of Bone Turnover and Bone Mineral Density in Patients on Haemodialysis and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

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          Renal osteodystrophy is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis. The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical markers of bone formation (serum collagen type I C-terminal propeptide) and resorption (serum deoxypyridinoline – DPD – and pyridinoline – PYR) with the bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis (HD) versus continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Fifty-nine adult patients, 45 on CAPD (18 females, 27 males) and 14 on HD (2 females, 12 males), were studied. The mean age was 44 ± SEM 1.6 and 54.4 ± 4.8 years, respectively. No significant differences in serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and parathyroid hormone were found between patients on HD and CAPD in predialysis samples. Serum urea was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in the CAPD group. Serum PYR (nmol/l) and DPD (nmol/l) were significantly higher in patients on HD as compared with those on CAPD: 105 ± 23.3 versus 43.7 ± 3.47 (p = 0.007) and 31.0 ± 2.4 versus 24.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.027), respectively. The results were still significantly higher in the HD patients following correction for serum creatinine and body mass index. There was a close correlation between dialysate DPD and creatinine in both dialysis modalities (HD r = 0.9, CAPD r = 0.76). The clearance of DPD did not differ significantly between the CAPD membrane and the HD membrane (p = 0.22). Serum collagen type I C-terminal propeptide was not significantly different between the HD and CAPD patients. The results were unaffected following correction for age and gender. The BMD was measured in 38 (65%) of the patients (HD n = 8, CAPD n = 30) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as ‘Z’ scores. This was reduced at all sites in the patients with end-stage renal disease. The BMD was significantly lower at the ultradistal forearm (mostly trabecular bone) in HD patients as compared with CAPD patients (n = 0.02). A similar trend was observed at the lumbar spine, although the results failed to reach significance. In the whole population (n = 38), linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between BMD at the ultradistal forearm and serum PYR (r = –0.35, p = 0.04) and DPD (r = –0.33, p = 0.049). Combined measurements of BMD and biochemical markers of bone resorption may have potential in the identification of patients at high risk of bone loss who may require further evaluation of bone remodeling by bone histomorphometry.

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          Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures

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            Circulating biochemical markers of bone remodeling in uremic patients.

             R Melero,  P Ureña (1999)
            Chronic renal failure is often associated with bone disorders, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminum-related low-turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, adynamic osteopathy, osteoporosis, and skeletal beta2-microglobulin amyloid deposits. In spite of the enormous progress made during the last few years in the search of noninvasive methods to assess bone metabolism, the distinction between high- and low-turnover bone diseases in these patients still frequently requires invasive and/or costly procedures such as bone biopsy after double tetracycline labeling, scintigraphic-scan studies, computed tomography, and densitometry. This review is focused on the diagnostic value of several new serum markers of bone metabolism, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP), procollagen type I carboxy-terminal extension peptide (PICP), procollagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), pyridinoline (PYD), osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in patients with chronic renal failure. Most of the observations made by several groups converge to the conclusion that serum bAP is the most sensitive and specific marker to evaluate the degree of bone remodeling in uremic patients. Nonetheless, PYD and osteocalcin, in spite of their retention and accumulation in the serum of renal insufficient patients, are also excellent markers of bone turnover. The future generalized use of these markers, individually or in combination with other methods, will undoubtedly improve the diagnosis and the treatment of the complex renal osteodystrophy.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              May 2002
              02 May 2002
              : 91
              : 1
              : 94-102
              aDepartment of Chemical Pathology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, Departments of bMedical Biochemistry, dMedical Physics, and eRenal Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, cDepartment of Clinical Chemistry, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, and fDepartment of Public Health Medicine, Guy’s, Kings, and St Thomas’ Medical and Dental School, London, UK
              57610 Nephron 2002;91:94–102
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 9
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              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Dialysis, Renal osteodystrophy, Bone markers, Bone mineral density


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