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      Comparison of the Humoral Markers of Bone Turnover and Bone Mineral Density in Patients on Haemodialysis and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

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          Abstract

          Renal osteodystrophy is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis. The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical markers of bone formation (serum collagen type I C-terminal propeptide) and resorption (serum deoxypyridinoline – DPD – and pyridinoline – PYR) with the bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis (HD) versus continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Fifty-nine adult patients, 45 on CAPD (18 females, 27 males) and 14 on HD (2 females, 12 males), were studied. The mean age was 44 ± SEM 1.6 and 54.4 ± 4.8 years, respectively. No significant differences in serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and parathyroid hormone were found between patients on HD and CAPD in predialysis samples. Serum urea was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in the CAPD group. Serum PYR (nmol/l) and DPD (nmol/l) were significantly higher in patients on HD as compared with those on CAPD: 105 ± 23.3 versus 43.7 ± 3.47 (p = 0.007) and 31.0 ± 2.4 versus 24.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.027), respectively. The results were still significantly higher in the HD patients following correction for serum creatinine and body mass index. There was a close correlation between dialysate DPD and creatinine in both dialysis modalities (HD r = 0.9, CAPD r = 0.76). The clearance of DPD did not differ significantly between the CAPD membrane and the HD membrane (p = 0.22). Serum collagen type I C-terminal propeptide was not significantly different between the HD and CAPD patients. The results were unaffected following correction for age and gender. The BMD was measured in 38 (65%) of the patients (HD n = 8, CAPD n = 30) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as ‘Z’ scores. This was reduced at all sites in the patients with end-stage renal disease. The BMD was significantly lower at the ultradistal forearm (mostly trabecular bone) in HD patients as compared with CAPD patients (n = 0.02). A similar trend was observed at the lumbar spine, although the results failed to reach significance. In the whole population (n = 38), linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between BMD at the ultradistal forearm and serum PYR (r = –0.35, p = 0.04) and DPD (r = –0.33, p = 0.049). Combined measurements of BMD and biochemical markers of bone resorption may have potential in the identification of patients at high risk of bone loss who may require further evaluation of bone remodeling by bone histomorphometry.

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          Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures

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            Circulating biochemical markers of bone remodeling in uremic patients.

             R Melero,  P Ureña (1999)
            Chronic renal failure is often associated with bone disorders, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminum-related low-turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, adynamic osteopathy, osteoporosis, and skeletal beta2-microglobulin amyloid deposits. In spite of the enormous progress made during the last few years in the search of noninvasive methods to assess bone metabolism, the distinction between high- and low-turnover bone diseases in these patients still frequently requires invasive and/or costly procedures such as bone biopsy after double tetracycline labeling, scintigraphic-scan studies, computed tomography, and densitometry. This review is focused on the diagnostic value of several new serum markers of bone metabolism, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP), procollagen type I carboxy-terminal extension peptide (PICP), procollagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), pyridinoline (PYD), osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in patients with chronic renal failure. Most of the observations made by several groups converge to the conclusion that serum bAP is the most sensitive and specific marker to evaluate the degree of bone remodeling in uremic patients. Nonetheless, PYD and osteocalcin, in spite of their retention and accumulation in the serum of renal insufficient patients, are also excellent markers of bone turnover. The future generalized use of these markers, individually or in combination with other methods, will undoubtedly improve the diagnosis and the treatment of the complex renal osteodystrophy.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              May 2002
              02 May 2002
              : 91
              : 1
              : 94-102
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Chemical Pathology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, Departments of bMedical Biochemistry, dMedical Physics, and eRenal Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, cDepartment of Clinical Chemistry, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, and fDepartment of Public Health Medicine, Guy’s, Kings, and St Thomas’ Medical and Dental School, London, UK
              Article
              57610 Nephron 2002;91:94–102
              10.1159/000057610
              12021525
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 9
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/57610
              Categories
              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Dialysis, Renal osteodystrophy, Bone markers, Bone mineral density

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