Blog
About

5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      m6A RNA Methylation Controls Neural Development and Is Involved in Human Diseases

      , , ,

      Molecular Neurobiology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          RNA modifications are involved in many aspects of biological functions. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most important forms of RNA methylation and plays a vital role in regulating gene expression, protein translation, cell behaviors, and physiological conditions in many species, including humans. The dynamic and reversible modification of m6A is conducted by three elements: methyltransferases ("writers"), such as methyltransferase-like protein 3 (METTL3) and METTL14; m6A-binding proteins ("readers"), such as the YTH domain family proteins (YTHDFs) and YTH domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1); and demethylases ("erasers"), such as fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on mapping mRNA positions of m6A modification and revealing molecular processes of m6A. We further highlight the biological significance of m6A modification in neural cells during development of the nervous system and its association with human diseases. m6A RNA methylation is becoming a new frontier in neuroscience and should help us better understand neural development and neurological diseases from a novel point of view.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 53

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Molecular basis for the recognition of primary microRNAs by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex.

          The Drosha-DGCR8 complex initiates microRNA maturation by precise cleavage of the stem loops that are embedded in primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs). Here we propose a model for this process that is based upon evidence from both computational and biochemical analyses. A typical metazoan pri-miRNA consists of a stem of approximately 33 bp, with a terminal loop and flanking segments. The terminal loop is unessential, whereas the flanking ssRNA segments are critical for processing. The cleavage site is determined mainly by the distance (approximately 11 bp) from the stem-ssRNA junction. Purified DGCR8, but not Drosha, interacts with pri-miRNAs both directly and specifically, and the flanking ssRNA segments are vital for this binding to occur. Thus, DGCR8 may function as the molecular anchor that measures the distance from the dsRNA-ssRNA junction. Our current study thus facilitates the prediction of novel microRNAs and will assist in the rational design of small hairpin RNAs for RNA interference.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase.

            Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in single-stranded DNA, with concomitant production of succinate, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. Consistent with a potential role in nucleic acid demethylation, Fto localizes to the nucleus in transfected cells. Studies of wild-type mice indicate that Fto messenger RNA (mRNA) is most abundant in the brain, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei governing energy balance, and that Fto mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus are regulated by feeding and fasting. Studies can now be directed toward determining the physiologically relevant FTO substrate and how nucleic acid methylation status is linked to increased fat mass.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Inactivation of the Fto gene protects from obesity.

              Several independent, genome-wide association studies have identified a strong correlation between body mass index and polymorphisms in the human FTO gene. Common variants in the first intron define a risk allele predisposing to obesity, with homozygotes for the risk allele weighing approximately 3 kilograms more than homozygotes for the low risk allele. Nevertheless, the functional role of FTO in energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that the loss of Fto in mice leads to postnatal growth retardation and a significant reduction in adipose tissue and lean body mass. The leanness of Fto-deficient mice develops as a consequence of increased energy expenditure and systemic sympathetic activation, despite decreased spontaneous locomotor activity and relative hyperphagia. Taken together, these experiments provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration that Fto is functionally involved in energy homeostasis by the control of energy expenditure.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Neurobiology
                Mol Neurobiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0893-7648
                1559-1182
                March 2019
                June 16 2018
                March 2019
                : 56
                : 3
                : 1596-1606
                Article
                10.1007/s12035-018-1138-1
                29909453
                © 2019

                Comments

                Comment on this article